The aim was to discredit the Versailles treaty, which had humiliatingly imposed upon Germany a traumatizing territorial amputation.
Call for Papers and Abstract Submission (deadline 15 March 2012)
Haushofer always remained vague about the definition and theoretical basis of Geopolitik Heske,p. It is however clear that a geoderministic perspective did underlay his geopolitical thinking, as Murphy has shown. Abdicating the scientific anchoring of geography, for a pseudo-scientific approach, clearly did unequivocally set Geopolitik against Ratzelian Politische Geographie. Haushofer, without liposuccion bastia zuccarelli formally joining the national-socialist party, was nevertheless closely associated with some of its leaders and afterbecame an apologist of the new regime and was rewarded with honors.
Korinman,p. This was under the pen of Emil Reich, a Hungarian polymath who had settled in Britain Reich,p. Short seems to be the only one using the term Geo-Politicsbut this was in a book of vulgarization of limited interest.
It was only during the Second World War that the term started to be commonly used in English. As Germany was gaining control of Continental Europe, the phenomenon of Geopolitik raised up much interest in the press in the United States, as it was deemed to be the secret behind the German success. At the same time the geopolitical reasoning of British Geographer and Liberal Unionist Politician Sir Halford Mackinder, one of the leading figures of the British New Geography at the turn of the century, was rediscovered.
Accordingly, he had ventured into conducting an analysis at a truly global scale, based on the historical opposition between continental powers and maritime powers. Finally, offering a rendering of the world divided in three strategic realms, pivot-zone or heartland, inner-crescent and outer-crescent, he warned that control of the heartland could become the basis for a global domination, by one or a combination of continental powers.
He felt absolutely necessary for the maritime powers to adapt to the threat posed by continental powers. As Parkerp.
Definition of regime in science
British Geographer Leslie Hepplep. Geopolitical theory seems to have been extremely influential in the s and s and to have informed the strategy of Containment, practiced by the US government, and its correlate, the domino theory Sloan, An adjunct of the myth is that the sea based powers cannot maintain their position unless complete command over all parts of the Eurasian littoral is maintained.
They have driven themselves into a frenzy of effort to plug all possible leaks in the Rimland dike, regardless of the risks involved in making commitments or the chances of success Cohen,p.
Grayp. Control of those Rimlands and marginal seas by an insular power is not synonymous with control of the World Island, but it does mean the denial of eventual global hegemony to the Heartland power that is, the Soviet Union Gray,p. Wrote Brzezinskip. Turning this definition into an explanatory theory meant treating everything in it as a variable; the result was a theory of the conditions that determine geopolitical rises and falls in territorial power, together with the consequences that flow from these changes in power Collins,p.
Using his theory, Collins made noteworthy predictions about the coming collapse of the USSR, which appear with hindsight unusually impressive Collins, Three central levels, the demographic space, the diplomatico-strategic space, and the economic space, form the geopolitical infrastructure. It is articulated with the physical space, whilst the symbolic space crowns edifice. The concept of power is represented by a central vertical axis, which connects the five spaces.
Vertically, inter-dimensional relations account for relations of incertitude, dominant or otherwise, as well as reveal the variability of the position of each actor from a dimension to the other, the line linking together the different points symbolizing the power of the actor.
This model also involves analyzing the variables of the configuration to account for the parameters of change both for each field but also for the global structure of power.
As far of the former is concerned, as Dussouy feels that a simple dialectic approach would not be sufficient to fully account for complexity, Dussouy resorts to using trialectic logic, involving 3 separate dynamics: assimilating homogeneity, the antagonistic equilibrium of heterogeneity as well as adaptive homogeneity. Yves Lacoste has attempted to combine the theoretical foundations of both geography and history, and rather than developing a geopolitical theory, he has focused on developing a methodology for geopolitical analysis Claval, ; Hepple Such approach is characterized by a number of specific features.
This is first the use of maps, often in the form of what Lacoste has named diatopes that is a type of representation formed by the superposition on the same graph of maps using different scales, which are intended conceptually to be to Geographers and Space, what diachronicity is to Historians and Time.
Often resorting to different levels of spatial analysis, from the small to the large scale, Lacoste has developed a classification of spatial sets in eigth levels of spatial analysis. There is clearly an emphasis on him frequently resorts to using comparisons of scales as well as the study of the intersections of spatial sets.
Whilst there is clearly an emphasis in regional questions in the work of Lacoste, he has nevertheless repas pour maigrir absolument jolie recently been dealing with more global vistas Lacoste, In National Identity and Geopolitical VisionsDutch Political Geographer Gertjan Dijkink has shown how illuminating a discourse-based analysis of the geopolitical visions could be to understanding of the national experience of place, by conducting a series of very stimulating study cases.
This is, in particular, the case of a number of Radical Geographers, who rejecting the validity of geopolitical reasoning, have developed an alternative Critical Geopolitics, inspired by postmodernism. Ó Tuathail,It nevertheless seems that a strong case can be made in support of the view that Geopolitics as an intellectual project, interdisciplinary in its essence, constitutes a valid form of policy relevant scientific inquiry.
Exploring a common research agenda seems highly pertinent, which could be based on a common framework. From the perspective of geopolitical analysis, two main avenues seem to present a special interest.
First, the extremely sophisticated systemic geopolitics model developed by Gérard Dussouy offers very interesting possibilities, which deserve to be explored further. Second, potential synergies between the different approaches and the possibility of bringing them together within an integrative framework, also deserve to be explored further.
En effet, pour ces auteurs, certains faits ont remis en cause les explications réaliste et libérale de la création et du maintien des régimes internationaux. Basé sur une revue de littérature des études qui ont été faites sur la théorie des régimes depuisce travail sera divisé en deux grandes parties. Avant de répondre à cette question, il est important de se demander pourquoi les régimes internationaux sont-ils nécessaires.
Ainsi, comme toutes les institutions sociales, les régimes internationaux sont des modèles de comportement ou de pratique autour desquels convergent des attentes reconnues. Une fois ces essais définitionnels esquissés et le concept opérationnalisé, nous allons nous intéresser aux différentes approches théoriques qui analysent les régimes.
Elle force les petits États à payer leurs cotisations pour maintenir le régime Gilpin Mais étant donné que la puissance hégémonique a un intérêt indépendant non lié à fournir les biens publics quelque soit la contribution des autres, les bénéficiaires du système international auront une incitation à se comporter comme des free-riders.
En dernière analyse, il affirme que, plutôt que ça soit les forts qui exploitent les faibles, ce sont au contraire les faibles qui exploitent les forts dans ce contexte Kindleberger Il convient de noter avec pertinence en empruntant les mots de Haggard et Simmons que, premièrement, la plupart des régimes ne fournissent pas des biens publics purs sécuritéqui sont caractérisés non seulement par la coordination dans la fourniture mais aussi par leur caractère de non-exclusivité.
Autrement dit, la théorie des jeux peut facilement expliquer les conditions dans lesquelles les régimes pourraient surgir comme un exemple de comportement coopératif, et elle peut également proposer des conditions propices pour le respect de la stabilité internationale. Elle est basée sur la prise en compte des intérêts des Etats.
Approche développée par Robert Keohane, ce dernier va identifier sept objectifs que les Etats pourront atteindre dans un cadre institutionnel fournit par les régimes. Dans son article intitulé Cave!
Traduction de «regime» - dictionnaire Italien-Anglais
Pour preuve, ce numéro spécial ne regroupe que des participants qui travaillent dans des universités américaines qui ont une inquiétude commune sur les questions posées par les régimes internationaux. Breitmeier et al. Desrosies and J. Macleod and D.
Gunther and L. Diamond and R. Haggard and B. Hasenclever et al. Helm and D. Hudon and C. Johnson and J.