All procedures were performed after obtaining written permission from the paticipents. Personal interviews and evaluations by trained nurses and neurologists were performed. Education, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia data were recorded.
Blood pressure was measured. Blood chemistry was analyzed. Smoking was defined as a current smoking habit. Brain CT was performed, and the obtained results were independently evaluated by 2 neurologists who were blinded to the clinical condition and laboratory assessment of the subjects.
This includes extensive periventricular lesion and severe leukoencephalopathy 21 Dental examination was performed by a dentist at the community health center.
The numbers of lost teeth were counted. We used multiple regression analysis to obtain odds ratios ORs and adjusted ORs. The independent variable was the number of lost teeth. We divided the number of lost teeth into 3 categories, namely, teeth; teeth; and more than 10 teeth.
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We used 2-tailed P values for all analyses. The P value of significance for our analyses was 0. Informed consent was received from all participating subjects.
Among the subjects, underwent dental examination by a dentist. However, the baseline characteristics of the subjects who did and did not undergo the ma rides examination were similar. The baseline characteristics of the subjects are shown in Table 1. Clinical characteristics between subjects with normal CT findings and those with white matter change and silent infarction. After adjustment for age, education, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, the OR was 1.
Odds ratios OR of unadjusted A and adjusted B multivariate analysis. The study population consisted of 2 groups. The first population, recruited inwas a randomly sampled group, and the second population, recruited inconsisted of volunteers.
The baseline characteristics of the 2 groups were different data not shown in that the age of the volunteer group was higher than that of the first population. Age is a very important factor that influences characteristics such as hypertension.
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However, we do not think this factor influenced our results. Furthermore, the aim of this study was not to compare the 2 groups. This study was a cohort-based, cross-sectional, observational study, and we thought that it was important to recruit as many participants to the cohort as possible.
The 2 groups were selected independently from the same cohort. There was no artificial manipulation in participant selection of the volunteer group, and the study group was randomly chosen. Periodontitis and dental caries are 2 major causes of tooth loss.
Before middle age, the most common reason for tooth loss is caries; however, later in life, periodontitis becomes the cellulite lexington ky flooring cause of tooth extraction With respect to pathophysiology, periodontitis and subsequent bacteremia cause vascular damage. However, recording tooth loss is much easier than assessing periodontitis directly, and most studies have used the number of lost teeth as a variable reflecting periodontitis 13 Some authors have suggested that caries should perhaps be investigated as a potential independent risk factor for atherosclerosis We believe that the loss of teeth may be because of cosmetic problems, wisdom tooth pain, or trauma without the presence of any underlying periodontal disease.
Therefore, we used subjects who had lost teeth as controls. A large prospective study on tooth loss and incidence of ischemic stroke used a control group of subjects who still had 25 to 32 teeth a normal adult has 28 to 32 teeth depending on the presence or absence of the wisdom teeth We did not count the number of remaining teeth which can be counted easily by a non-dentistbut instead counted the number of lost teeth.
All subjects included in this study underwent a dental examination by a dentist. We believe that this result was not significant because of the small sample size. Except for the results for tooth loss, our results are similar to those of a previous study To eliminate the effect of other well-known cerebrovascular risk factors, we adjusted the data by using the covariates of age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, education, and current smoking status.
This study was a cross-sectional study and not a large prospective study, and the dependent variable was not stroke or dementia. Comfort Risk for infection Class 1. Physical comfort Risk for surgical site infection Impaired comfort Class 2. Environmental comfort Risk for falls Impaired comfort Risk for corneal injury Readiness for enhanced comfort Risk for injury Class 3. Growth Risk for physical trauma This class does not currently contain any diagnoses Risk for vascular trauma Class 2.
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