They can have a variety of orientations and form enamel prisms. Between the prisms, inter-prismatic crystals, organic material such as proteins, lipids and carbohydrates can be found, as well as water. Enamel mineralization can vary between teeth and within the same tooth.
The surface layer of enamel has the greatest level of mineralization, with the layer closest to dentin having the least Kunin et al. There are different types of dentin in teeth.
The outer layer, mantle dentin, is made of calcospheritic globules with interglobular spaces. Tubules may be found in mantle dentin but is usually void of them. The next layer is circumpulpal dentin, which forms the bulk of the tooth-tissue. It is initially deposited as a cellular layer which matures to predentin and then undergoes mineralization. Tubules are present to house the odontoblast process, with mineralized intertubular dentin between.
This peritubular mineral is deposited from the tubular amorphous material. Continuous production of dentin occurs throughout the life of the tooth and, if the tooth is exposed to caries or erosion for example, defensive mechanisms are available, producing either reactionary dentin usually from an odontoblast, or reparative dentin from other cells, e.
Both the mineral layers enamel and dentin are heterogeneous and provide protection to the vital soft-tissue - the pulp - centrally. These mineralized tissues are susceptible to dental decay—dental caries—one of the commonest, preventable diseases affecting the human population Marcenes et al.
Imaging techniques aid detection of dental caries, the simplest being produced from the sensory organ of the eye, which uses the visible light of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Light can interact with the mineralized tooth-tissue in a number of ways, such as reflection, scattering, transmission, or absorption. Absorption can produce heat or fluorescence. These interactions can contribute to optical detection methods, such as transillumination, optical coherence tomography and quantitative light-induced fluorescence. There are no health-risks from these methods, which are non-ionizing. Digital imaging fiber optic transillumination DiFOTI has limited penetration depth of dental caries but can be improved by using longer wavelengths of near-infrared — nmespecially 1, nm, due to enamel transparency at these wavelengths.
Penetration-depth of optical coherence tomography OCT can also be limited but detection of lesions just beyond the dentin-enamel junction have been reported. Mineralized tooth-tissue possesses the ability to auto-fluoresce and quantitative light-induced fluorescence QLF uses this property, whereas DIAGNOdent Kavo and the LF-pen is thought to use fluorescence from protoporphyrin IX and associated bacterial products, not the mineralized tissue Hall and Girkin, ; Karlsson, ; Park et al.
Over a century ago, the first acceptable dental radiographs for clinical use were reported by Harrisonutilizing X-rays from the electromagnetic spectrum. X-rays have limitations regime sportif thonon les bains yoga such as the extent of demineralization needed before caries can be detected Whaites, and its location, e.
Occlusal lesions are positioned in the center of the biting-surface of the tooth and are less easily detected due to the bulk of sound mineralized tissue which surrounds them. This surrounding sound tissue reduces penetration of the X-ray beam, compared to the demineralized lesion which would allow a greater proportion of X-rays to pass onto the image receptor, providing contrast between the lesion and sound tissue. This results in the occlusal lesion being masked by the sound surrounding tissue.
X-rays are also ionizing in nature with associated biological risks, e. An infra-red thermal camera captures naturally-emitted electromagnetic radiation from the infra-red region. Infra-red radiation has longer wavelengths nm to 1mm than X-rays 0. The Herschel family were central in discovering infra-red radiation and William Herschel was credited inand John Herschel produced the first Thermogram in Holst, By the mids, the military was maximizing the heat-seeking capacity of thermal imaging.
Technological advancement in recent years provides accessible and affordable thermal cameras with potential for clinical diagnostic application in medicine. Currently, pridesoft mobile imaging is not used to detect dental caries but warrants further investigation. In Kaneko et al. Their findings were positive but the thermal properties of the mineralized tissue were not considered.
These values were obtained from the use of thermocouples, a thermometer, a thermistor, a pulse-laser and infra-red thermography Lisanti and Zander, ; Phillips et al. Table 1. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity values of human enamel and dentin. A map provides spatial information from co-ordinates on two axes, such as X and Y. The use of a thermal value for each co-ordinate corresponding to a pixel of tooth-tissue could be represented from a grayscale, producing a thermal map specific to that tooth-tissue.
This could show the spatial relationship of the thermal properties of the tooth-tissue as an image, rather than a series of numerical values.
This may be more clearly understood from the map providing a 2-dimensional relationship of the thermal properties across the whole surface of the tooth-tissue. The thermal properties of enamel and dentin may be sufficiently different to visually distinguish enamel from dentin. Demineralized areas within both tissues may also have different thermal properties due to tissue-changes, such as mineral loss from caries, which may be seen in the thermal map.
The primary aim of this study was to produce a thermal map of a sound, human tooth-slice to visually characterize human enamel and dentin. The secondary aim was to map a human tooth-slice with demineralized enamel and dentin to consider future diagnostic potential of thermal maps in caries-detection. Both teeth were cut bucco-lingually with an Accutom-5 Struers, Copenhagen, Denmark into 1 mm-thick tooth-slices and then polished with an grit abrasive sheet, with the addition of distilled water as needed.
Slice-thickness was measured with a digimatic micrometer IP65 Quantumike Mitutoyo. Photographs and radiographs of each tooth-slice were taken. A period of 35 min stabilization was allowed prior to commencing data-collection. Figure 1. Thermal cube with hotplate and heating-mat green in position, with camera secured on the cube by a fixed-mounting normal to the samples.
The parameters used with the camera were: Emissivity 0. The carrier was manually transferred to the aluminum hotplate. Data-capture by the thermal camera commenced prior to transfer of the carrier. Figure 2. Thermograph of Sample 1—Sound tooth-slice, with circular areas-of-interest shown to enable calculation of the characteristic-time-to-relaxation used in the computation of the thermal diffusivity of the tissues.
Once the value of thermal diffusivity was known, thermal conductivity could be calculated:. The thickness of the sound tooth-slice measured less than a millimeter in all areas, with the greatest enamel-thickness in the middle at 0. The carious tooth-slice was thicker in all areas, with the maximum thickness of enamel at 1. Table 2. Dimensions of tooth-slices as recorded with a calibrated digimatic micrometer.
The initial rewarming temperatures for the sound tooth-slice in both crown- and root-dentin green and pink broken-lines were lower than the two areas of enamel purple and blue broken-lines. It took circa 30 s to reach thermal equilibrium of all tissues Figure 3.
The rate of rewarming in both regions of enamel are the same and marginally quicker i.
Root caries filling
The results for the right-hand side enamel and crown-dentin respectively, show differences in characteristic-times-to-relaxation: enamel at 3. The results indicate from the sound tooth-slice that enamel has a higher value of thermal diffusivity 3.
All values are provided in Table 3. These values fall mainly within the accepted range for thermal diffusivity of enamel at 2. Figure 3. Table 3. Within the carious tooth-slice, the rate of rewarming in the two sound enamel areas-of-interest purple and blue broken-lines are similar, whereas the enamel carious lesion is slower red solid-line Figure 4.
Carious enamel fails to reach equilibrium in the 30 s time-period. Crown-dentin green broken-line warms quicker than root-dentin pink broken-line. The carious dentin mustard solid-line is the slowest of all tissues to rewarm and fails to reach equilibrium within the time-frame. The characteristic-time-to-relaxation for carious enamel is 5. This is the only occassion where enamel has a slower characteristic-time-to-relaxation than dentin.
All other values give enamel 4. The enamel has a lower value of thermal diffusivity, ranging from 1. Thermal diffusivity shows the crown-dentin 0.
The carious area of dentin has an increased value of 1. The thermal conductivity of carious enamel 0. All other values of thermal conductivity for enamel and dentin within the carious tooth-slice are lower than others' findings. Figure 4. The two thermal maps distinguish the mineralized tissues of enamel, dentin and the carious areas of both tissues using the thermal properties of characteristic-time-to-relaxation and heat-exchange during rewarming Figure 5.
Figure 5. Sample 1- Sound tooth-slice and Sample 2 - Carious tooth-slice. Initially, a photograph is shown, followed by an X-ray, then the characteristic-time-to-relaxation thermal map and, finally, the heat-exchange thermal map depicting enamel, dentin and carious areas of enamel and dentin. Infra-red thermal imaging is a recette regime 800 calories which is yet to be maximized within the field-of-medicine and its subsidiary specialty - dentistry.
Published work for determining the thermal properties of tooth-tissue Panas et al. Tooth-slice thicknesses of 2. Lin et al. Simultaneous heat-application to the irregular occlusal surface would be unlikely, compared to the application of vertical heat to the flat surface of the samples within this study and Panas et al. The tooth-slices within this study were viewed directly—unlike Lin et al. They were also heated directly—unlike Panas et al. Neither of these additional layers was considered in their final calculations.
Despite these variations, a single-sample Lin et al. Multiple samples from different teeth have not previously been reported from this technique, nor have areas of demineralization or caries. All samples are from different donors with inherent anomalies in the tissue-types, as previously described.
Investigation of a point location or a single line of a single tissue-sample with any temperature-recording-method, e. The larger the area-of-interest used for each tissue and the greater the sample-size, the more valid and reliable any inference from the findings. Within this study, two samples, one sound and one carious with a demineralized area, were investigated with multiple areas-of-interest for each tissue.
Enamel values of thermal diffusivity and conductivity fall within proximity of known-ranges for the sound tooth-slice but do differ slightly between the two sides examined. Greater variation is seen within the demineralized enamel, where the carious area-of-interest returns the lowest values.
This could be explained by the loss of mineral, but caution is needed as the range of values for the sound areas-of-interest differ by a similar proportion within the same sample. These findings appear appropriate to the nature of the tissues being investigated and a more general outcome as described by Panas et al. That is, following the application of heat and analysis with thermal imaging, a difference between the thermal response of enamel and dentin was detectable, with enamel tending to conduct heat quicker than dentin.
The data from this study agrees with that baseline principle and within the two samples presented - sound and demineralized - the thermal properties indicate that enamel conducts heat quicker than dentin within each sample. Two exceptions are seen - one for carious enamel and one for the root-dentin outlier. The carious lesion will have a reduced mineral content - not quantified in this study - and returns a thermal conductivity which lies between the crown-dentin and carious dentin of the same tooth-slice.
Comparison between sample-values does not agree with this principle and may be due to the natural variation of the samples from different people, the age of the teeth, the orientation of enamel prisms and dentinal tubules or the carious process. Further work is needed to investigate these relationships. The purpose of this study was to see if enamel and dentin could be visualized from their individual thermal properties within a map.
A thermal map provides a 2-dimensional diagram of the spatial relationship of every thermal value per pixel calculated across the whole tooth-slice. This advances the techniques previously described and adds to the information of an optical image. Usage It's practically suitable for all bristle bodies for example floor wiper, sweeping set and dental sticks. Characteristics Beech wood is a hard and high quality wood.
It's fine pored and stands out because of its smooth surface. Because of this characteristic and thanks to its unobtrusively texture, the wood is perfect for a colored varnish. Application area Brooms for the in- and outdoor area as well as in the dental section. Bristle body with a colored varnish. Perdre du poids en nageant la brasse coulée Because the nordic birch is slow and in a result of that with small annual rings grows, is the wood tough and elastic.
It's a lightweight wood, wich holds a high resistance against dryness and moisture. Usage Weapon brushes, grill brushes, hotplate wiper, technical brushes. Origin Bronze is an copper-tin-based alloy. In addition you can add elements like zinc, nickel and phosphorus. This way the characteristics of bronze will specific spread.
Characteristics Through the alloy-component tin features bronze, compared to the pure, relatively soft copper, a high stability and hardness. Furthermore bronze is corrosion resistant. Usage Grill brushes, wire brushes, brushes for ceramic glass hot plate. Characteristics Brass is much harder and more solid than pure copper, but not so hard as bronze.
It has a nice golden color and is comperatively expensive. It is more brittle than steel, so it has to process more careful. Micro-organisms live in the oral cavity.
They feed on substances that are easily broken down — above all sugar. In doing so, they excrete metabolic products acidswhich attack and decalcify the enamel. Sugar-free chewing gums can delay the formation of caries.
They cause saliva to be produced, which favours the breakdown of acid-forming bacteria. However, chewing gum in no way replaces tooth brushing, as it does nothing to remove the plaque. Regular dental care is important from the moment the first tooth appears. To protect the milk teeth, it is important to use a suitable toothbrush and a low-fluoride toothpaste.
Correct tooth brushing requires practice and patience. First, the chewing surfaces should be cleaned, then all outer surfaces and finally the inner surfaces of the teeth. Nonetheless, it is advisable for Mummy or Daddy to finish off for small children. For thorough dental care, attention also needs to be paid to a healthy diet.
Too many sweeties or a constant supply of sweet drinks lay teeth open to attack. Sugar consumption should be restricted as much as possible and be followed by tooth brushing. Origin The fruit fibers from the coconut shell are mainly from the countries Sri Lanka and India.
The Shell is getting roasted and after chipping and washing the fibers will be peeled of and comed through.
Characteristics Cocosfibers are weather- and rot-resistant, elastic and the've got a high abrasive strength. Application area It's suitable for the cleaning of rough floors like basement- and loft floors. Dry and rough floors in store- and fabric halls, garages, garden paths and stone plates outside houses. The Fibers can also be used wet areas or oiled floors.
Disease occurring as a result of long-term overuse of fluoride. Its mildest symptoms are white to brownish spots on the enamel. These appear if between the ages of six and eight excessive quantities of fluoride are regularly ingested.
The dental pulp is surrounded by the dentine, which forms the main bulk of the tooth. The enamel protects the dentine in the visible part of the tooth. It is softer than the enamel and contains fine tubules. These convey stimuli to the dental nerve.
Where tooth necks are exposed periodontosisthe dentine is laid bare and so is not protected. Hot and cold, sweet and sour, are perceived as pain signals.
Special toothpaste, suitable mouthwash and above all an efficient toothbrush, all have a decisive effect in strengthening the gums. If caries has eaten through the enamel, the disturbance will progress more rapidly through the dentine, aided by the tubules that go through it.
Where the teeth have exposed necks, the dentine has no protective enamel layer and is therefore very prone to caries. Thread made of artificial fibre for cleaning interdental spaces. Approximately 50 cm of dental floss is removed from the dispenser, the ends wound round the middle finger of each hand and held against the thumbs.
The taut floss is inserted carefully into each interdental space in the upper jaw and pulled up and down. To clean the lower jaw interdental spaces, take the ride my push bike round the tips of the forefingers. It is important always to clean both tooth surfaces of each interdental space.
Unsightly food pigments can be deposited in the uppermost enamel layer, e. Usage Scrubbing brush, tar scrubbing brush, bathtub brushes, sweep brushes, chimney brushes, shoe brushes, hand-wash brushes eco brushes, avoir un cou sans rides brush.
Origin Fiber is one of the most important brush trimming material. They come from plant fibers in Central America wich are extracted from agave- and bromeliad-leaves. The leaves getting knocked until tough to fiberlike leafnerves remain.
They will get combed and so is the fiber finished processing. Characteristics The yellow-white middlefine fibers are heat-resistant and acid-resistant. Also it's tough, elastic and water-resistant. They are suitable for a gentle cleaning and also for the production of houshold brushes. Application area For kitchenware, floors in household, office and tar. Moisture- or wetsection. Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums that is caused by the metabolic by-products of plaque bacteria.
Visible signs of gingivitis are swelling and bleeding of the gums. Treatment or prevention requires that the bacteria-containing layer be removed as gently as possible, but nonetheless completely.
Application area For dusty and sensitively surfaces as well as for art. Usage Floor wipers, sweeping set, fabric hand-wipers, shoe brushes, radiator brushes, bottle brushes. Als Besatzmaterial wird sowohl das Mähnen- wie auch das Schweifhaar eingesetzt.
Das Haar wird vor der Verwendung gewaschen, geradegebunden, mind. Characteristics Rosshaare sind fein und weich. Die steifen Haare des Schweifs sind wertvoller und qualitativ besser als die weicheren Haare der Mähne. Rosshaare eignen sich zum Mischen mit Borsten, da sich die Spitzen der Schweifhaare sehr gut maschinell spalten lassen. Ebenso zum Abfegen trockener Holz- und Metallspäne von Maschinen. Nur trocken anwendbar.
Origin Mixture between horsehair and nylon bristles from Europe. The Horsehair is getting mixed with fine synthetic fibers. Characteristics Fine and low-cost alternative compared to pure horsehair.
It is possible to clean the narrow spaces between the teeth individually, using dental floss, toothpicks or special interdental toothbrushes.
Because it is difficult to clean between the teeth, the bacterial coating plaque often remains there. Consequently, the enamel is attacked and the tooth often suffers unnoticed for a long time. In this first stage of caries, in which there is only damage beneath the enamel surface, the condition can often be halted or cured by better oral hygiene and regular use of fluoride.
Scoop- or chisel-shaped front teeth that are used for biting. The eight milk incisors are replaced by eight permanent incisors around the age of six. These are the first teeth, which appear at six or seven months. They are replaced between the ages of six and twelve years by the permanent teeth. Up to that point, the milk teeth serve to keep the places that the permanent teeth are going to take.
They should remain intact as long as possible. These are the permanent, big, knobbly back teeth. The first molars come through into the oral cavity behind the milk molars at about the age of six. Together with both of the incisors, they are the first permanent teeth in the oral cavity. At about the age of twelve, the second molars come through and the wisdom teeth possibly only in adulthood. Usage Sweeping set, floor wipers, sweeper, washing-up brushes, square wipers, scrubbing brushes, toilet brushes, bottle brushes and various household brushes.
Origin Polypropylene is a synthetic plastic, wich is based on petroleum. Characteristics PP is lightweight, doesn't even collect water and is resistent against a lot of acids, bases and solvents. You can use it up to max. Application area Mostly used at Moisturesections for groceries and rough brushes. Usage Toothbrushes, toilet-rim cleaner, bottle brushes and various houshold brushes.
Usage Sweeping set, floor wiper, painter plastic, polish brushes plastic, outdoor broom. Characteristics Qualified for special requirements Polymex is elastic and has got an outstanding Application area It is used for wood- and stone floors in place of horsehair. Usage Washing-up brushes, dairy brushes, massage brush plastic, Hairbrushes, household brushes, industry broom. Characteristics The Fiber is in general like the natural fiber but it has its own special features. They are very elastic, buckling resisten, do not swell up in the water, do not get soft and have got an abrasive strength.
Origin Tar products are the base product of this synthetic fiber. Characteristics It is resistent against chemicals, especially stiff and has got the best abraison resistance. Shows a low wateradmission, good elasticity and features an excellent Usage Base body by tooth brushes, sweeping set, scrubbing brushes, floor wiper, washing-up brushes, toilet brushes, toilet set, shoe brushes, sweeper, various brush handles.
Inflammation of the gums gingivitis leads in the long run to receding gums and to loosening of the teeth. This can lead to loss of the teeth. Unlike gingivitis, periodontal damage can only be treated with great difficulty. Careful dental care and professional removal of plaque or tartar can prevent periodontosis or slow down any existing deterioration. Plaque is a tough coating which settles on tooth surfaces and on the gum edges; it consists mainly of bacteria.
In 1 mg of wet plaque, there are approximately million bacteria. Most of these bacteria are responsible for producing tooth-damaging acids.
Some bacteria excrete substances that make the plaque sticky and tough. Plaque can only be removed mechanically. Great care should be taken in choosing a toothbrush.
The cleaning effect, in terms of the bristle area, and an ergonomically shaped handle are the most important selection criteria. Usage Changing-heads for the washing-up brush, floor wiper, outdoor broom, sweeping set black. Origin Recycling-material is a mixture from plastic waste.
Polyolefine plastic. Application area Household section for dim bodies, wich mostly getting colored in black.
The dentine around exposed tooth necks or roots has no protective enamel layer and so is more prone to caries. The targeted application of toothbrushes, dental floss and interdental brushes combined with an effective toothpaste can provide protection.
Gums recede following inflammation periodontitis or damage to the gums around individual teeth. Most often this occurs as a result of incorrect brushing technique, e.
The abrasiveness of a toothpaste tells you the extent to which it will rub away surfaces. It is measured on the RDA scale. The higher the RDA value of a toothpaste, the greater its rubbing effect. It is this action that removes the plaque in tooth-brushing, without the enamel being attacked. However, where tooth necks are exposed, toothpastes that are too abrasive may remove dentine, which is softer than enamel; in this case they should not be used.
Saliva prevents the mucous membranes from drying out, rinses the oral cavity, neutralises acids and provides minerals to strengthen the enamel. This occurs mostly at the edge of a filling. Cracks between the filling and the tooth are the cause of this form of caries. Plaque that has not been sufficiently removed by tooth-brushing can make gums slightly inflamed, and gentle rubbing, say by a toothbrush or toothpick, can make them bleed.
If this occurs, it is important to continue brushing the teeth thoroughly, but gently. Where teeth have exposed necks, the dentine has no protective enamel layer and is therefore very prone to caries.