The amount of weight gained during a single pregnancy varies among women. The Institute of Medicine recommends an overall pregnancy weight gain for women starting pregnancy at a normal weight, with a body mass index of Doctors and dietitians may make different, or more individualized, recommendations for specific patients, based on factors including low maternal age, nutritional status, fetal development, and morbid obesity.
During pregnancy, insufficient or excessive weight gain can compromise the health of the mother and fetus. All women are encouraged to choose a healthy diet regardless of pre-pregnancy weight.
Exercise during pregnancy, such as walking and swimming, is recommended for healthy pregnancies. Exercise has notable health benefits for both mother and baby, including preventing excessive weight gain. The fetus inside a pregnant woman may be viewed as an unusually successful allograftsince it genetically differs from the woman. Drugs used during pregnancy can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus. Therefore many physicians would prefer not to prescribe for pregnant women, the major concern being over teratogenicity of the drugs.
Drugs, including some multivitaminsthat have demonstrated no fetal risks after controlled studies in humans are classified as Category A. On the other hand drugs like thalidomide with proven fetal risks that outweigh all benefits are classified as Category X. Various toxins pose a significant hazard to fetuses during development. A study found that virtually all U. Researchers detected polychlorinated biphenylsorganochlorine pesticidesperfluorinated compoundsphenolspolybrominated diphenyl ethersphthalatespolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsperchlorate PBDEs, compounds used as flame retardants, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDTa pesticide banned in the United States inin the bodies of 99 to percent of the pregnant women they tested.
Bisphenol A BPA was identified in 96 percent of the women surveyed. Several of the chemicals were at the same concentrations that have been associated with negative effects in children from other studies and it is thought that exposure to multiple chemicals can have a greater impact than exposure to only one substance. Most women can continue to engage in sexual activity throughout pregnancy. Sex during pregnancy is a low-risk behavior except when the healthcare provider advises that sexual intercourse be avoided for particular medical reasons.
The Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee of Canada recommends that "All women without contraindications should be encouraged to participate in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises as part of a healthy lifestyle during their pregnancy". Although an upper level of safe exercise intensity has not been established, women who were regular exercisers before pregnancy and who have uncomplicated, healthy pregnancies should be able to engage in high intensity exercise programs, such as jogging and aerobics for less than 45 minutes, with no adverse effects if they are mindful of the possibility that they may need to increase their energy intake and are careful to not become overheated.
In the absence of either medical or obstetric complications,they advise an accumulation of 30 minutes a day of exercise on most if not all days of the week. In general, participation in a wide range of recreational activities appears to be safe, with the avoidance of those with a high risk of falling such as horseback riding or sking or those that carry a risk of abdominal trauma, such as soccer or hockey.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reports that in the past, the main concerns of exercise in pregnancy were focused on the fetus and any potential maternal benefit was thought to be offset by potential risks to the fetus. However, they write that more recent information suggests that in the uncomplicated pregnancy, fetal injuries are highly unlikely. They do, however, list several circumstances when a woman should contact her health care provider before continuing with an exercise program.
Contraindications include: Vaginal bleeding, dyspnea before exertion, dizziness, headache, chest pain, muscle weakness, preterm labor, decreased fetal movement, amniotic fluid leakage, and calf pain or swelling to rule out thrombophlebitis. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners reports that many pregnant women do not exercise and they recommend that moderate exercise should be advised for pregnant women as part of prenatal care.
They advise that exercise has benefits for both mother and fetus as well. A Cochrane review of prenatal exercise-related studies assessed the effects of regular aerobic exercise at least two to three times per week on physical fitness, the course of labor and delivery, and the outcome of pregnancy in healthy women. They concluded that regular aerobic exercise during pregnancy appears to improve or maintain physical fitness, however the authors noted that the trials were small and not of high methodologic quality and the data was insufficient to infer important risks or benefits for the mother or infant.
The authors suggested that larger and better trials are needed before confident recommendations can be made about the benefits and risk of aerobic exercise in pregnancy. Each year, according to the WHO, ill-health as a result of pregnancy is experienced sometimes permanently by more than 20 million women around the world. Furthermore, the "lives of eight million women are threatened, and more thanwomen are estimated to have died in as a result of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.
Pregnancy poses varying levels of health risk for womendepending on their medical profile before pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo implants outside the uterine cavity. Most ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tube so-called tubal pregnanciesbut implantation can also occur in the cervixovariesand abdomen.
It should be considered in any woman with abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding who has a positive pregnancy test. An ultrasound showing a gestational sac with fetal heart in a location other than the uterine cavity is clear evidence of an ectopic pregnancy. Tubal ectopic pregnancy is the most common cause of maternal death in the first trimester of pregnancy. Most commonly this invades blood vessels which causes bleeding resulting in the expulsion of the implantation from the tube.
Termed "tubal abortions", about half of ectopic pregnancies will resolve without treatment. The use of methotrexate treatment for ectopic pregnancy has reduced the need for surgery, but surgical intervention is still required in cases where the Fallopian tube has ruptured or is in danger of doing so.
The surgical intervention may be laparoscopic or through a larger incision, known as a laparotomy. A woman who has had a previous ectopic pregnancy is more likely to have another. The majority of women with ectopic pregnancies have had pelvic inflammatory disease or salpingitisan inflammation of the fallopian tube.
A history of gonorrhea or chlamydia can also cause tubal problems that increase the risk. Endometriosisa condition that causes the tissue that normally lines the uterus to develop outside the uterus may slightly increase the incidence of an ectopic. The risk is increased in women who have unusually shaped fallopian tubes or tubes which has been damaged, possibly during surgery. Taking medication to stimulate ovulation increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
Although pregnancy is rare when using birth control pills or an intrauterine device IUDif it does occur, it's more likely to be ectopic. Although pregnancy is rare after tubal ligationif it does occur, it's more likely to be ectopic.
In addition to complications of pregnancy that can arise, a woman may have other diseases or conditions not directly caused by the pregnancy that may become worse or be a potential risk to the pregnancy. Two different types of stem cells can be collected before childbirth: amniotic stem cells and umbilical cord blood stem cells. The collection of amniotic stem cells is part of the process of amniocentesis.
Umbilical cord blood stem cells can be stored in both public and private cord blood banksThe first private amniotic stem cell bank in the US was opened by Biocell Center in October in Medford, Massachusetts. In most cultures, pregnant women have a special status in society and receive particularly gentle care. In many traditional societies, pregnancy must be preceded by marriage, on pain of ostracism of mother and illegitimate child. Depictions of pregnant women can serve as mystically connotated symbols of fertility.
The so-called Venus of Willendorf with its exaggerated female sexual characteristics huge breasts and belly, prominent mons pubis has been interpreted as indicative of a fertility fertility cult in paleolithic Europe.
Uterine hyperpigmentation during pregnancy
Overall, pregnancy is accompanied by numerous customs that are often subject to ethnological research, often rooted in traditional medicine or religion. The baby shower is an example of a modern custom. Pregnancy is an important topic in sociology of the family. The prospective child is preliminarily placed into numerous social roles such as prospective heir or welfare recipient.
This may accelerate weddings. The parents' relationship and the relation between parents and their surroundings are also affected. Due to the important role of the Mother of God in Christianity, the Western visual arts have a long tradition of depictions of pregnancy. Pregnancy, and especially pregnancy of unmarried women, is also an important motif in literature.
In Europe, the average childbearing age has been rising continuously for some time. In Western, Northern, and Southern Europe, first-time mothers are on average 26 to 29 years old, up from 23 to 25 years at the start of the s. In a number of European countries Spainthe mean age of women at first childbirth has now even crossed the 30 year threshold.
This process is not restricted to Europe. Asia, Japan and the United States are all seeing average age at first birth on the rise, and increasingly the process is spreading to countries in the developing world like China, Turkey and Iran. In the U. Modern reproductive medicine offers a choice of measures for couples who stay childless against their will: fertility treatment, artificial insemination and surrogacy.
An abortion is the termination of an embryo or fetus, either naturally or via medical methods. When done electively, it is more often done within the first trimester than the second, and rarely in the third. Legality of socially indicated abortions varies widely both internationally and through time.
In most countries of Western Europe, abortions during the first trimester were a criminal offense a few decades ago but have since been legalized, sometimes subject to mandatory consultations. Many countries have various legal regulations in place to protect pregnant women and their children. Maternity Protection Convention ensures that pregnant women are exempt from activities such as night shifts or carrying heavy stocks.
Maternity leave typically provides paid leave from work during roughly the last trimester of pregnancy and for some time after birth. Notable extreme cases include Norway 8 months with full pay and the United States no paid leave at all except in some states.
Moreover, many countries have laws against pregnancy discrimination. With technology developments cases of post-menopausal pregnancies have occurred, and there are several known cases of older women carrying a pregnancy to term, usually with in vitro fertilization of a donor egg. A year-old Brazilian woman with implantation of a regime oeuf une semaine egg, expected her first child September M : OBS.
M : BRE. This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors see full disclaimer. Donate to Wikimedia. Toutes les traductions de pregnancy. Une fenêtre pop-into d'information contenu principal de Sensagent est invoquée un double-clic sur n'importe quel mot de votre page web. LA fenêtre fournit des explications et des traductions contextuelles, c'est-à-dire sans obliger votre visiteur à quitter votre page web!
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For pregnancy in other animals, see pregnancy mammals. Stages in prenatal developmentwith weeks and months numbered from last menstrual period. The initial stages of human embryogenesis. Fertilization and implantation in humans. Main article: Childbirth. Main article: Postnatal. Linea nigra in a woman at 22 weeks pregnant. Breast changes as seen during pregnancy.
Note the increase in size and darkening of the areola. By the end of the second trimester, the expanding uterus has created a visible "baby bump".
Although the breasts have been developing internally since the beginning of the pregnancy, most of the visible changes appear after this point. Comparison of growth of the abdomen between 26 weeks and 40 weeks gestation. Main article: Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy. Melasma pigment changes to the face due to pregnancy.
Main articles: Prenatal care and pre-conception counseling. Main article: Nutrition and pregnancy. Main article: Immune tolerance in pregnancy. Main article: Drugs in pregnancy.
Main article: Sexual activity during pregnancy. Main article: Complications of pregnancy. Main article: Ectopic pregnancy.
The " Venus of Willendorf ". Giotto di Bondone Visitationcirca Main article: Advanced maternal age. Main article: family planning. Main article: Assisted reproductive technology. Main article: Abortion. MedicineNet, Inc.
BBC News. The Free Dictionary. Retrieved Retrieved 09 Mar Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved fatty tissues cellulite March Kieler, O. Axelsson, S. Nilsson, U. Waldenströ DOI : Retrieved 25 November UpToDate, inc.
Saskatchewan Prevention Institute. Medem, Inc. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Archived from the original on 30 December Durham Obstetrics and Gynecology. Discovery Communications, LLC. Retrieved 11 March Mayo Clinic. Updated by: David C. Dugdale, Susan Storck. Also reviewed by David Zieve. Retrieved 19 March Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 13 9 : —8. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 14 1 : 23— Channel 4. Giving Birth Naturally. Lancet : — It decreases dramatically after the 8th week.
Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice, and Policy Oxford University Press : "The first sign of electrical brain activity occurs at the end of week 5 and the beginning of week 6 Brody This is far from the beginning of conscious brain activity; it is primitive neural activity. However, despite all this amazing and rapid growth and development, it is not until week 23 that the fetus can survive, with major medical support, outside of the womb.
Before this, the fetus is simply laying the foundations for a brain—a very different thing from having a sustainable human brain. A rotatable 3D version of this photo is available hereand a sketch is available here. Akush Ginekol Sofiia 46 2 : 31— Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29 3 : —8. FDA Consumer Magazine. Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 28 Feb Washington Post. Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 3 February Retrieved 26 January Acta Paediatr.
Pediatrics 4 : — MMWR Morb. N, et al. Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids, Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. J Fam Health Care 17 2 : 45—9.
J Perinatol 27 9 : — Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 40 4 : — August J Antimicrob Chemother 34 Suppl A : 43— Institute of Medicine. Alcohol Health and Research World 16 2 : — Neurobiological Learning and Memory 64 3 : — Drug and Alcohol Dependence 36 2 : 89— March of Dimes.
Science Daily. Bermudez; A. Sanchez, G. Buela-Casal Psychology in Spain 5 1 : 14— Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 84 10 : — A prospective study". J Reprod Med. British journal of sports medicine 37 1 : 6—12; discussion The Journal for Nurse Practitioners 3 5 : — Cochrane database of systematic reviews Online 3 : CD Retrieved 7 December Merck Manual, Home Health Handbook.
Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. May Manual Therapy 12 2 : 86— Eur Spine J. Blackwell, Sean December Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Human Reproduction, 2nd Edition. Saunders, Philadelphia, January Human Reproduction Update 16 4 : — Fourteenth Edition. By the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement.
July The Boston Globe. The anthropology of health and healing. Plymouth: AltaMira Press. Mary in western art.
Hamilton August Our study confirms the frequency and the variability of these modifications. The pigmentary changes were the most common finding. Ce qui était connu. Ceci se traduit par des changements qui varient de par leur nature, leur fréquence, leur gravité, leurs circonstances de survenue, et par leur évolution. Le but de ce travail a été de définir les principales caractéristiques épidémio-cliniques des modifications cutanées physiologiques observées au cours de la grossesse.
Les principales modifications physiologiques de la peau observées au cours de la grossesse sont rapportées dans le Tableau Iet les Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 ont été choisies pour illustrer ces cas. Ces modifications physiologiques cutanées au cours de la grossesse constituent un motif fréquent de consultation. Sur le corps, les zones habituellement les plus touchées sont les aréoles mammaires, les régions anopérinéogénitales, axillaires et abdominales linea nigra.
Dans notre série, les varices des membres inferieurs étaient trouvées chez environ un tiers des femmes. Français Español Italiano. Journal page Archives Sommaire.
Article Article Outline. Access to the text HTML. Access to the PDF text If you experience reading problems with Firefox, please follow this procedure. Recommend this article. Save as favorites. Service d'aide à la décision clinique Votre service d'aide à la décision clinique. Free Article! Modifications physiologiques de la peau au cours de la grossesse. Elles sont dominées par les troubles pigmentaires et les modifications vasculaires.
Le médecin doit reconnaitre ces modifications afin de pouvoir informer, rassurer ses patientes. Outline Masquer le plan. Top of the page - Article Outline. Figure 1. Pigmentation mammaire Zoom. Figure 2.
Figure 3. Gingivite hyperplasique Zoom.