Key questions include:. The Stocktaking Report aims to provide the G Leaders with a summarized but comprehensive frame- work by which to understand the SME finance gap and its challenges. The first part of the report is con- ceptual and primarily consists of a review of the literature on SME Finance in the developing world; the second part of the report discusses the analysis of cases of SME Finance interventions compiled through a collective effort involving G member countries, non-member countries, development finance institutions, and private sector players.
Finally, the report highlights key recommendations that are proposed to the G Leaders in order to achieve significant and sustainable scale-up of SME access to financial services across the developing world. In this backdrop, this study is going to explore the role of institutional credit in agricultural production using the time series data for the period of to Cobb-Douglas production function is estimated using OLS and all the variables are transformed to per cultivated hectare.
Results show that agricultural credit, availability of water, cropping intensity and agricultural labor force are positively significantly related to agricultural production. Indeed, leases are one of the newer financial products now making their mark on agricultural value chains. The need for greater consultation before policies are introduced is perhaps the over-riding lesson from The report discusses key trends and drivers in land acquisitions, the contractual arrangements underpinning them and the way these are negotiated, as well as the early impacts on land access for rural people in recipient countries.
The report looks at large-scale land acquisitions, broadly defined as acquisitions whether purchases, leases or other of land areas over 1, ha. While international land deals are emerging as a global phenomenon, this report focuses on sub-Saharan Africa. The report draws on a literature review; on qualitative interviews with key informants internationally; on national inventories of approved and proposed land acquisitions since in five African countries Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mali and Sudanas well as qualitative case studies in Mozambique and Tanzania; and on legal analysis of applicable law and of a small sample of land deals.
Seguidamente, se describe la metodología que utilizada para esta investigación. Los casos seleccionados fueron:. It then discusses how these good practices can be applied in the context of Pakistan. Private-sector finance has made comment mincir à 45 ans image start in filling this long-established gap, widened over the last decade as public-sector financing frameworks for small-scale agriculture have been withdrawn.
However, the flow of capital to agricultural SMEs needs to be scaled up. This paper looks at the barriers to doing so. This paper seeks to show that while the reason for the missing middle is fairly straightforward, eliminating it requires a multi-track approach to match the complex pattern of demand, supply, and infrastructure features.
Farmers in developing countries are frequently exposed to the uncertainties of weather, prices and disease. Many farmers live on the edge of extreme uncertainty, sometimes falling just below, and sometimes rising just above the threshold of survival.
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Farmers do not know whether rainfall will be good or bad over a season; they do not know the prices they will receive for produce sold; and they do not know whether their crops will be infected by disease. These risks are not under the control of farmers but some farmers have developed ways of coping and managing them. The purpose of the paper is to provide practitioners, policy makers and donors with a thorough overview of agricultural microfinance. It is hoped that they can use this information to expand the access of farming-dependent households to sustainable financial services on a massive scale.
The analysis in this paper was conducted without bias towards any specific institutional type or approach because there is enormous potential for cross-learning among traditional agricultural finance, agribusiness credit and microfinance. Although the paper focuses on lending, it also recognizes and explores the importance of deposit, insurance and money transfer services for both farming households and financial institutions. This paper was produced as a desk review, supplemented by correspondence with the institutions in the case studies, visits to selected institutions and discussions with knowledgeable third parties.
Based on desk reviews, consultant site visits and stakeholder consultation, CGAP identified a shortlist of institutions actively engaged in agricultural finance that showed the potential to achieve scale and sustainability. Several case studies were selected from this shortlist and are presented in the present publication.
These case studies present promising approaches to the sustainable provision of financial services to poor rural households reliant on agriculture. The five institutions or projects highlighted in the studies are:. El presente documento describe cómo los comerciantes de cereales sobre todo arroz y productos hortofrutícolas financian sus actividades.
La conclusión principal es que la falta de financiamiento no obstaculiza el normal desarrollo del comercio agrícola en la región, en parte porque los vínculos financieros existentes en las cadenas de comercialización llenan este vacío, al menos parcialmente. Sin embargo, la falta de acceso a fuentes formales de capital de trabajo y sobre todo de capital para inversiones, dificulta la expansión y modernización de la actividad comercial.
El estudio analiza también los impactos sobre el financiamiento de los comerciantes agrícolas de la creciente informalización de algunos sistemas de comercialización agrícola y de las crisis económicas que han afectado recientemente América Latina. This brief notes in its introduction that rural areas and the agricultural sector in developing countries have often been underserved by conventional financial institutions due to the higher transaction costs of these operations and the higher real and perceived risk associated with agricultural lending.
In seeking to promote rural development, and considering the relative importance of agriculture in many of these economies, many governments have struggled to expand rural and agricultural finance.
In the s and s, governments saw it as their role to step in and provide credit, either through state agricultural banks or through directed credit programs facilitated by commercial financial institutions. While these programs may have had an immediate effect on the growth of targeted agricultural sub-sectors, loans available under these programs typically were costly to administer and included subsidized interest rates.
Further, for political or social reasons governments often would treat the loans as grants, resulting in a culture of non-payment.
With these failures as backdrop, the brief highlights that governments often face the fundamental problem: agriculture and rural areas are underserved in terms of credit and other financial services.
How can governments expand rural and agricultural finance, without repeating the mistakes of the past? Instead of being a direct provider, governments can be far more effective by establishing and enabling environment for the private sector to supply financial services to rural and agricultural sectors. This case study analyzes the innovations and performance of bank and non-bank financial institutions sustainably expanding access to demand-driven rural and agricultural financial RAF services in Moldova during the last five years December —September The main objectives of this case study are to explore how RAF programs in Moldova have overcome the challenges of improving access to financial services for rural communities and the agricultural sector and to extract lessons applicable to other less-developed countries.
The case also considers improvements in the operating environment that have facilitated expansion of RAF services. The paper concludes with highlights of key lessons learned and an evaluation of the transferability of the innovations and results achieved.
This paper discusses the challenges to ad factors affecting the success of institutions providing financial services for agricultural activities. The World Bank definition of rural finance is adopted here — the provision of a range of financial services such as savings, credit, payments and insurance to rural individuals, households, and enterprises, both farm and on-farm, on a sustainable basis. It includes financing for agriculture and agro processing. Agricultural finance is defined as a subset of rural finance dedicated to financing agricultural related activities such as input supply, production, distribution, wholesale, processing and marketing.
And the term microfinance is considered the provision of financial services for poor and low income people and covers the lower ends of both rural and agriculture finance. Section 1 of this document provides readers with an overview of recent research in the area of rural and agriculture finance, and sets out the commonly held opinions.
The following section then provides a discussion of the main challenges in the provision of financial services in rural areas — the paper amalgamates different lists from various sources that may constrain both supply and demand. Section 3 then points to what is working. It notes, of course, that there is not one clear model or set of guidelines that an institution can follow to ensure absolute success.
The final section discusses what is being learnt — including a summary of the lessons from urban microcredit that can be applied to rural areas. This paper points to the needs of vibrant rural financial markets for a supportive legal and regulatory framework as well as the necessary institutions to bring that framework to life.
For example, it notes that agricultural enterprises do not benefit from secured lending laws if the necessary moveable or immovable property registries do not exist, or operate ineffectively. It is the institutional infrastructure, together with the legal and regulatory framework, that enables the growth of a variety of viable financial institutions that are client oriented, mobilize deposits effectively and provide access to loans to a full range of farmers, agribusinesses, and other rural clients.
The rural and agricultural finance institutional infrastructure implements and enforces the legal and regulatory framework, and provides support and other services to the agricultural and financial sector. These institutions include both public and private institutions.
Some work directly with the financial sector to support their operations and services to rural and agricultural clients. Other institutions provide services directly to rural enterprises, improving their access to finance and their bankability.
The purpose of this RAFI note is to provide an introduction to the types of institutions that comprise the supportive infrastructure for rural and agricultural finance, identification of how these institutions address various constraints to rural and agricultural finance, and the lessons learned from developing these institutions and their operations. Different aspects of rural and agricultural infrastructure are discussed, which fall under three main headings:.
He wonders, however, if micro-finance a suitable way of financing seasonal crop loans, or longer term farm investments such as tube wells or terracing? There seems to be a mismatch between micro-finance and on-farm investments, not least in respect of interest rates. The cost of funds, that is the interest rate, must be far enough below the expected return from the investment to cover the risk of loss and to allow the owner a reasonable surplus.
Can farmers afford microfinance? The "old paradigm" rural development finance institutions have in some cases disappeared, and in others they have been converted into what are effectively specialist micro-finance institutions MFI. This article asks if new paradigm micro-finance effectively address the needs of farmers. The author constructs an interesting table which compares the features of five possible uses of credit in a rural household - health needs, petty trade, milking cows, crop loans and minor irrigation - with the characteristics of typical microfinance loan products.
He concludes that there is an increasing mismatch in suitability as one moves from health needs and petty trade to crop loans and irrigation.
He then goes on to examine one particular feature in more detail - the mismatch of microfinance interest rates with on-farm rates of return.
Professor Harper believes that MFIs should consider their clients' rates of return as well as their own costs when setting interest rates. He argues that if interest rates are higher than the clients' returns, the long-term impact will be to impoverish them and not to enrich them.
Studies of many microenterprises have established that their rates of return can be very high. To conclude the article the author asks if the low or negative margin between the cost of micro loans and returns from farm investments matters. He cites arguments for and against the issue being a problem and explores some trends which may help to render microfinance products more suitable for farmers, notably the increasing competition amongst MFIs and from commercial banks which will help to drive interest rates down.
Microfinance staff seem largely unaware of the potential unsuitability of their products for farming and the author recommends that those who advise, finance and train MFIs should encourage their staff to investigate the situation and address the problem if there is one. In many developing countries and countries in transition, access to credit is severely constrained, as most banks are willing to lend only against certain fixed assets and at terms and conditions that are often unfavourable to operators in the commodity sector.
Recently there has been a quiet revolution in agricultural lending, similar to what happened with micro-finance in the s. Consequently the risk for the financiers is much lower, so that agricultural lending can become a useful activity.
This paper reviews innovative delivery models for agricultural finance, suggests ways forward to further develop such models, and discusses how to mainstream them, particularly by familiarizing more developing country banks with these new techniques. Therefore, the paper highlights the need for the international community to fund related projects.
Innovations outlined in this paper include warehouse receipt finance, collateral managers, structuring finance around farmers' purchases and sales, establishing agri-service centres, agricultural credit cards, weather and commodity price risk management tools. The paper concludes with recommendations for policy-makers, international financing organisations and banks to encourage the development of more innovative agricultural financing schemes.
The overall objective of this study is to highlight the major bottlenecks in the development of self-sustainable agricultural finance in Uganda and to set out a medium term strategy for the support of this sector. By way of backdrop, the analysis and recommendations of this paper are formed around the question "How will Ugandan agriculture creme anti rides amazon over the long term and how will these changes influence the demand for financial services?
The report begins by describing the evolution of macroeconomic and financial policies and how this evolution has affected the structure and performance of the financial system and its ability to serve the agricultural and rural sectors. The final section attempts to pull these arguments together and forms a series of key recommendations, most of which are directed towards policy makers across a range of ministries and institutions.
These recommendations are based around three main clusters:. The annexes to this report also provide further useful details on some of the key areas of the report - SACCOs, a note on the use of land as collateral for agricultural lending in Uganda, information management, and insurance as a financial service. Although the fields of intervention of aid for development have changed considerably over the past 15 years, support for agricultural development remains a major investment for most donors.
Agricultural modernisation issues are still important: the covering of food requirements in the southern countries, foreign currency earnings by export crops, participation in the economic development of rural zones, contribution to reducing rural exodus, etc. However, the financing of agriculture remains a strong constraint in the modernisation process. The institutional innovations in decentralised financial services or 'microfinance' during the past 15 years have only partially removed the constraint.
By dismantling the remaining public agricultural financing systems, liberalisation is giving the question of financing renewed acuteness. This paper was presented at an international workshop in Dakar, Senegal, in January It is concerned with the role that donors can play in facilitating the supply of sustainable financial services suited to the needs of agriculture.
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The first part consists of a brief historical reminder of how interventions in rural financial services have changed in the years since countries gained their independence.
The second part is an analysis of the main modes of intervention currently used by donors in West Africa with regard to their effect on the financing of agricultural activities. They noted:.
The researchers concluded that the evolution of intervention modes in microfinance and the priority accorded to the financial consolidation of institutions have led to separation from the problems of the financing of agricultural activities. The microfinance and agriculture sectors are now strongly compartmentalised and scope for inter-sectoral dialogue is reduced both at the local level little dialogue between MFIs and farmers' organisations in the field and at the national level no consultation between professional institutions.
To effect improvement they recommended that donors should continue to support the development of microfinance and promote its diversity; renew their efforts in innovation to create appropriate intermediation models; improve their tools and procedures for guaranteeing loans; enhance meetings and dialogue between the agricultural and microfinance sectors and promote financing tools that are better adapted to the constraints of microfinance and the requirements of agriculture, e.
This article is aimed at shedding light on the question using the case of francophone West Africa. The present characteristics of the contribution of MFIs to the financing of agriculture in West Africa are presented in the first part of the article. The second part consists to analyse, on the basis of observation and statements by MFIs and agricultural stakeholders in West Africa, the blocking factors that limit the contribution of microfinance to agriculture and identify the pathways and technical, financial and institutional innovations that could lift these constraints.
Finally, the author concludes that microfinance can improves its contribution to agriculture by means of long, in-depth work on the consolidation of the two sectors, the adaptation of services and products, making credit secure by means of cellulite onctueuse gang and institutional innovations and strengthening links of mutual knowledge and trust.
Mp regimental store, it seems obvious that the road to be followed to achieve the full meeting of the amplitude and diversity in agriculture is a long one. The Kyrgyz Republic has 12 years of independent statehood, 9 years of reforms. The process of reform, transition to market economy showed that it is not easy to find the right way of developing. KAFC is one of the successful stories in our country, but before that the country made mistakes with agriculture lending programs.
Kyrgyz experience demonstrates to other countries that creation and developing of viable and sustainable financial institution is very possible, if the efforts of local authorities and donors will come together and compliment each other. El documento parte de la premisa que para satisfacer la demanda rural por servicios financieros es necesaria la creación o consolidación de instituciones financieras específicas. De acuerdo a los autores, una demanda como la rural, con características estructurales y permanentes, sólo puede ser atendida con soluciones de largo plazo antes que soluciones de corto plazo como los proyectos.
Se entiende que las necesidades de crédito rural dependen de una serie de situaciones específicas que dependen de cada contexto en donde se desarrollen las unidades económicas agro sistemas u otros tipos de sistemas de producciónpor lo tanto requieren soluciones específicas para cada caso, y la existencia de instituciones que guarden relación a las condiciones presentadas por sus contextos.
Entre ellos se describen los siguientes tipos:. Posteriormente se discuten los riesgos y seguridad del crédito rural. Se señala la dificultad de controlar las cuentas por pagar, la adecuación de los sistemas de crédito a los contextos específicos y el uso de diversas formas de garantías moral, social, material ,asi como el uso de fondos de garantía.
Asimismo, se mencionan los riesgos familiares, la importancia del ahorro y las organizaciones mutualistas de apoyo. Finalmente, los riesgos económicos y aquellos relacionados con la seguridad del ambiente económico-técnico de los agricultores. El documento concluye con dos interrogantes, respecto al rol de los intermediarios financieros, el reto de ampliar su campo de acción y asegurar su viabilidad; y de qué manera las condiciones generales de la actividad agrícola contribuyen a reforzar la viabilidad de las instituciones financieras, especialmente en los países en desarrollo.
The objective of this study is to identify unique features of the agricultural sector and the rural economy that present challenges for expanding the frontier of formal finance, how these affect the provision of sustainable financial services and the key elements of a strategy for successful agricultural lending.
Jose Vicente Concha
Although no simple blueprint exists for successful rural financial institutions serving agriculture, some recent interesting experiences derived from case studies and the new microfinance developments suggest "better practices" that are presented as part of the strategy.
Le financement agricole. Agricultural finance is a subset of rural finance dedicated to financing agricultural related activities such as input supply, production, distribution, wholesale, processing and marketing. Financial service providers face distinct challenges when dealing with this sector.
For example, the seasonal nature of production and the dependence on biological processes and natural resources leaves producers subject to events beyond their control such as droughts, floods or diseases. Land is the most widely accepted asset for use as collateral but there are often problems with title and property rights in rural areas and small loans rarely justify the costs of legal action to call in a claim on land and then liquidate it.
Moveable assets such as livestock and equipment are also fairly high risk without proof of ownership and insurance cover. Because developing countries have large rural populations, policy-makers have frequently tried to intervene in agricultural finance with policies to provide subsidised credit through a variety of channels.
Such programmes often created more problems than they solved and there was a move away from supply led credit towards a market based approach relying on commercially viable financial institutions.
Governments are still tempted to control interest rates, however, and intervene in other ways, so policies relating to agricultural finance remain an important issue. Library Resources. English en. Large-scale agricultural investments and rural development in Tanzania: lessons learned, steering requirements and policy responses.
New network aims to help bridge multi-billion-dollar financing gap in rural areas. Auteur L. Exploring Blockchain Applications to Agricultural Finance. Inclusive Summer Academy. How can matching grants in agriculture facilitate access to finance? Auteur Rachel Sberro-Kessler Nombre de pages 41 pp. Rebuilding West Africa's Food Potential: Policies and market incentives for smallholder-inclusive food value chains.
La finance agricole : tendances, opportunités et modèles émergents. New Trends in Agricultural Finance. Revue des initiatives existantes en matière de gestion des risques agricoles au Niger. Frankfurt School Development Finance e-Campus. Certificat d'Expert en Gestion des Risques.
French fr. Auteur Swisscontact Éditeur Swisscontact Nombre de pages 58 pp. Maitriser les intempéries: assurance, épargne et crédit en Afrique de l'Ouest.
Accès au crédit pour les exploitations familiales du Niger: Quels acquis? Quelles perspectives? Le Burkina Faso crééra une "banque agricole" pour soutenir l'agriculture.
Nombre de pages 80 pp. Trickle-Down, Trickle-Up or Puddle? Microfinanzas rurales y cadenas de valor Agropecuarias. Nombre de pages 95 pp. Private equity plows into new territory with move to agribusiness. Passerelles - Finance rurale : Perspectives de trois continents.
Partenariat entre Root Capital et Mastercard pour soutenir les petits agriculteurs africains. Auteur Richard L. Spanish es. Pasantía Internacional: Financiera Comultrasan.
European Microfinance Week Successful Practices in Value Chain Development. Auteur Abraham, T. Certified Expert in Digital Finance. Rapport de conférence - SAM Catalogue des innovateurs - Salon de l'Innovation Auteur P. Prasoon, A. Pareek, A. Natu et al. Éditeur MicroSave Nombre de pages 85 pp. Auteur Varangis, P. Nombre de pages 84 pp. Auteur Soglohoun, N.
Éditeur Fin4Ag Nombre de pages 52 pp. Financing Serbian farmers before harvest. Auteur Agricultural Finance Corporation Ltd.
Auteur Dalberg Nombre de pages 44 pp. Module 7: Reading material for pre-course distribution. Auteur J. Magnay, D.
Pond, I. Townsend, G. Yamamoto Microlinks Nombre de pages 10 pp. Microentrepreneurs and Their Money: Three Anomalies. Understanding Youth and their Financial Needs.
Auteur Dalberg Nombre de pages 48 pp. A comprehensive overview of investments and human resource capacity in African agricultural research. Semaine Africaine de la Microfinance Digital Finance: How to reach rural customers? Auteur Dr. Auteur Meyer, R. Éditeur The World Bank Nombre de pages 72 pp. National Cash Transfer Co. Launches Operations in Yemen. Webinar - Closing the smallholder finance gap. Chinese zh. Sobre el crédito a los agricultores de pequeña escala y la necesidad de una base autónoma de recursos.
Auteur Sial, M. Auteur Cotula, L. Nombre de pages pp. Auteur Doran, A. McFadyen, N. Éditeur Oxfam Nombre de pages 54 pp. Addressing the gender differentiated investment risks to climate-smart. Auteur E. Auteur Andrews, M, Sr.
Godwin Mashiri : Une assurance intelligente contre le changement climatique. Auteur Harper, M. Semaine du Microcrédit This is a call for more responsible use of funds destined for poverty alleviation. IFAD to redefine its role, investment. Auteur Wampfler, B.
Auteur Klein, B. Créer un nouveau compte Demander un nouveau mot de passe. Compte d'utilisateur. Search Library Resources Search any Term. Geographical Area - Any. Services de soutien aux entreprises. Services financiers ruraux. Conseil stratégique.
Policy Advice: General. Agricultural innovation. Agricultural insurance. Banking for the poor. Country studies. Collateral regulation. Donor interventions. Financial cooperatives. Financial crisis. Comenzó en medio de la crisis que tal conflicto suponía y de una situación fiscal bastante seria, tanto que el Congreso le concedió facultades extraordinarias.
Por ellas suprimió los gastos que no obedecían a urgentes necesidades, o aplazó los que no fueran del servicio ordinario y la deuda nacional, la que observó con responsable interés. También fueron afectados los auxilios de beneficencia e instrucción. La guerra mundial perjudicó el desarrollo del comercio, que tenía una notable dependencia del exterior. Los créditos internacionales quedaron suspendidos type de recette pour maigrir los comerciantes colombianos debieron vérselas para atender sus compromisos, con el fin de asegurar buen nombre después del conflicto.
A ello se sumaban las alzas en el transporte de mercancías y las dificultades propias de la situación. En el esfuerzo por mantener, hasta donde fuera posible, un satisfactorio estado de la economía, el gobierno echó mano de vales de tesorería como instrumento de negocio con los acreedores de la nación.
Por otro lado, contó con los estragos de un intenso verano y de una devastadora plaga de langostas. Un gesto que ilustró el sentido patriótico de Concha fue su renuencia a contratar empréstitos internacionales, lo que estimó como el mejor camino para conservar la soberanía del país en tan difíciles circunstancias mundiales.
Y se convino con Venezuela el deslinde y amojonamiento de los linderos entre ambos países, conforme al laudo de la Corona española enpara lo cual se acordó encomendar dicha labor al presidente de la Confederación Helvética, quien envió expertos suizos para tal efecto, cuyos trabajos finalizaron en Y añadió una consideración digna de tenerse en cuenta: "A mí no se me podría juzgar nunca por los ladrillos nuevos que puse, sino por las ruinas tremendas que evité".
Salió de la administración con el reconocimiento de sus compatriotas a la tarea realizada, que bien resumió él mismo. Fue nombrado representante del gobierno y el pueblo colombiano ante el gobierno de Mussolini y luego ante la Santa Sede. En esa ciudad lo veía con asiduidad el escritor liberal Juan Lozano y Lozano, quien en repetidas veces sostuvo la tesis de que Concha fue eminentemente liberal, pero que se mantuvo dentro del conservatismo por el aspecto religioso, que en el ilustre político bogotano era de absoluta e imprescindible significación.
No resistimos la tentación de transcribir un fragmento de una pieza oratoria de Lozano y Lozano, escrita enen la que da rienda suelta a la admiración que le inspiraba el embajador:. Yo lo visitaba con frecuencia y lo miraba bien en los ojos, y procuraba grabar muy hondo en mi memoria su figura, para que me sirviera de inspiración al través de los días de mi vida.
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