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A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women. Antioxidant intake and risk of incident age-related nuclear cataracts in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am J Epidemiol. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, an Ancillary Study of the Women's Health Initiative.
Arch Ophthalmol. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of cataract in women: a prospective study. Nutrition and the prevention of cataracts. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of lutein and antioxidant dietary supplementation on visual function in healthy eyes.
Bartlett HE, Eperjesi F. Clin Nutr. Food and Drug Administration. The role of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in protecting against age-related macular degeneration: a review based on controversial evidence. Nutr J. Dietary antioxidants and primary prevention of age related macular degeneration: systematic review and meta-analysis. Texte intégral : www.
Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Richer S, Stiles W, et al. Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial.
Lutein, but not alpha-tocopherol, supplementation improves visual function in patients with age-related cataracts: a 2-y double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Effect of lutein and antioxidant dietary supplementation on contrast sensitivity in age-related macular disease: a randomized controlled trial.
Eur J Clin Nutr. Lutein and zeaxanthin for macular degeneration. Zhao L, Sweet BV. Health Syst.
Egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition
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J Natl Cancer Inst. Dietary carotenoids and the risk of invasive breast cancer. Int J Cancer. Dietary intake of carotenoids and retinol and endometrial cancer risk in an Italian case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. Dietary carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in a pooled analysis of seven cohort studies.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Texte intégral : cebp. However, concentrations of Z were not significantly different between groups at final visit, reflected in the similarity of serum Z concentrations in both groups. Four eggs were taken weekly from the batch of study eggs of both normal and enriched egg groups and tested for their carotenoid content for the duration of the EXIT study. These results are presented in Fig.
Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and TAG levels were measured at baseline, midpoint 4 weeks and final study visit 8 weeks for both subject groups. This study presents findings of the EXIT, a clinical trial designed to study the impact of the consumption of normal control eggs, and carotenoid L and MZ -enriched eggs on serum carotenoid concentrations, visual performance and MP densities in human subjects.
As a secondary outcome measure, serum cholesterol levels were also monitored in both study groups over the course of the trial. The rationale and motivation for undertaking the current study relates to the suggested role that the yolk matrix, which is liquid in nature and of high lipoprotein content, may play in enhancing carotenoid absorption and, therefore, bioavailability of these compounds in humans 48 Indeed, the potential of eggs to enhance carotenoid serum responses, when compared with other foods and supplements, has been suggested by the findings of previous studies 3855 It is worth noting that previous studies have investigated the consumption of both L 485455596375 - and Z 6276 -enriched eggs and their effect on MP, vision and serum concentrations of the carotenoids.
In addition, there was also one study that investigated the serum response to MZ-enriched eggs However, the current investigation is the first to report on the serum, MP and visual response to eggs enriched with L and MZ. The main finding from this study was that there was a statistically significant increase in serum carotenoid concentrations in the control and enriched egg groups over the course of the trial, whereas no significant MP changes were seen in either study group.
A significant increase in total cholesterol was noted in both control and enriched egg groups over the course of the trial; however, no significant changes in serum HDL and LDL or TAG levels were evident. In relation to serum carotenoid changes in this study, it was perhaps not surprising that we saw a response in both the control and enriched egg study groups, as hen eggs are known to be naturally bioavailable sources of both L and Z because of the colocalisation of these xanthophylls with egg yolk HDL 5960 These results are comparable with most 48546375 — 78but not all 627980previous reports Table 3.
The finding by Wenzel et al. It is perhaps worth noting, however, that a more significant increase in serum Z was indeed noted in many studies when compared with that of serum L 48546375 A possible contributory factor may be the effect of cooking of the eggs, as cooking-mediated losses of L have been reported to be greater than those of Z Thurnham 38 has reported that observed increases in plasma Z concentrations can be a function of lower baseline Z concentrations in comparison with baseline L concentrations, thereby favouring more marked rises in serum concentrations of Z.
As MZ is not present in non-enriched eggs, and no other studies investigating the consumption of MZ-enriched eggs have been published, it is difficult to discuss the between-intervention-group response to MZ in our study. Interestingly, in our study, in the enriched egg group, observed rises in serum concentrations of CisZ which is likely to be a combination of cis -Z and cis -MZ were similar to the observed rises in serum MZ Fig.
There may be several reasons for this observation, including the following: 1 a portion of yolk MZ and also possibly yolk Z may be metabolised to its respective cis form during uptake or absorption, hence contributing to the overall CisZ response — indeed, previous reports have noted augmentation of serum CisZ in response to supplementation with Z 8485 ; 2 there may have been thermally induced isomerisation of trans -Z and MZ during the cooking of the eggs, as this has been previously reported in the case of some vegetables, including maize With respect to the relationship between serum concentrations arising from egg consumption and MP in our study, we found no significant correlations in either study group over the 8-week intervention period.
This finding is in agreement with one previous report 76but in contrast to that of others 62 — 64 Table 3. When discussing the MP findings in the current study, it is perhaps worthwhile to note the study of Broekmans et al. In contrast, serum carotenoid concentrations and adipose tissue concentrations of L were significantly higher in women however, it is known that there is a higher concentration of adipose tissue in the body composition of women than in men 88and therefore this may naturally have influenced greater L absorption by adipose tissue in women.
Hence, it may be important to consider adiposity when reporting the relationship between carotenoid intake and MP.
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The fact that we did not see a change in MP in the enriched egg group in the current study is perhaps unusual, given the predominance of males in that group. In this regard, it may also be important to highlight that concentrations of carotenoids in serum reflect more recent dietary intake, whereas adipose tissue concentrations more accurately reflect longer-term dietary intake of carotenoids 89and therefore in a shorter study such as the current one serum and adipose tissue effects on MP density may not have been elicited.
With regard to visual performance, in our study, the small number of statistically significant results for letter CS i. First, none of the improvements were clinically significant and, second, the statistical significance that we report e. An improvement in CS without an increase in MP has been noted in a previous study by our group 20although this was evident at 6 months post intervention.
Overall, the lack of improvement in visual performance of the EXIT subjects is consistent with the lack of MP augmentation also observed, as it has been shown that CS improvements are typically commensurate with observed augmentations in MP It is also important to note that, as seen in Table 1the baseline values for BCVA and CS in both subject groups in our study were considered high, and therefore our finding of limited clinically meaningful improvements in their visual performance is not unexpected, particularly considering the relatively short duration of the trial.
Indeed, we have previously shown that improvements in visual performance in healthy subjects without AMD are possible over a longer duration 12 months In addition, in the current study, we considered whether low and high carotenoid responders may have behaved differently in terms of their visual parameters.
However, this would have reduced group sizes significantly, and after a cursory examination we felt that such an analysis would be unjustified. The limitations of this study include the relatively short study period and small sample size, the lack of randomisation of the treatment groups and the high male:female ratio in the enriched egg group. In amaigrissement cancer estomac age follow-up clinical trial, males and females would be randomly allocated to the two treatment groups, and food colouring could also be added to both trial supplements to eliminate the need for different locations for both arms of the trial.
Of note, previous work has shown that females responded better to carotenoid supplementation than males In addition, it has been reported that carotenoids in an egg matrix may possibly have significantly lower bioaccessibility, because of reduced retention and transfer of the carotenoids to the micelles micellarisationwhen cooked by scrambling the method chosen in the current study in comparison with boiling The finding that CisZ appeared to have greater bioaccessibility to serum than trans Z and MZ is potentially interesting, and warrants further investigation.
In summary, carotenoid-enriched eggs could represent a cost-effective and readily bioaccessible source of the macular carotenoids as an alternative to over-the-counter formulations. V Ave. Almazan No. Topo Chico, Monterrey, N. All authors have read and approved the manuscript. All other authors report no potential conflicts of interest.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. The British Journal of Nutrition. Cambridge University Press. Br J Nutr. David Kelly1 John M. Nolan1 Alan N. Howard2, 3 Jim Stack1 Kwadwo O. Akuffo1 Rachel Moran1 David I. Thurnham4 Jessica Dennison1 Katherine A.
Meagher1 and Stephen Beatty 1. John M. Alan N. Kwadwo O. David I. Katherine A. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Kelly, email ku. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The macular carotenoids lutein Lzeaxanthin Z and meso -zeaxanthin MZ accumulate at the macula, where they are collectively referred to as macular pigment MP.
CA2823205C - Compositions et procedes dans le domaine des carotenoides - Google Patents
Methods Study design and subjects EXIT is a single-blind placebo-controlled 8-week clinical trial that studied the impact of macular carotenoid-enriched eggs on serum carotenoid concentrations, visual performance, MP and serum cholesterol levels in human subjects. Study supplement: carotenoid-enriched hen eggs Production of the carotenoid-enriched eggs has been described previously Macular pigment measurement MP was measured at baseline and at final visit 8 weeks by both customised heterochromatic flicker photometry using the Macular Densitometer Macular Metrics Corp.
Serum carotenoid analysis Serum L and total zeaxanthin TZ including Z, MZ and cis -zeaxanthin CisZ concentrations were measured at baseline, trial midpoint 4 weeks and at the final subject visit 8 weeks. Egg yolk carotenoid analysis Four eggs were removed each week from group 1 and group 2 egg batches and analysed for their carotenoid content.
Baseline differences between the two study groups Table 1 presents the baseline demographic, health and anti ride efficace cellulite quebec, MP, cholesterol and serum carotenoid data of the control egg group and carotenoid-enriched egg group subjects in the EXIT clinical trial. Table 1 Baseline demographic, health and lifestyle, cholesterol, macular pigment MPvisual function and serum carotenoid data of the control group and enriched-group subjects Mean values and standard deviations for numerical data and percentages for categorical data.
Open in a separate window. Within-group changes over time paired-sample t tests The first research question addressed was as follows: which study variables changed significantly over the 8-week study period? Between-group changes over time repeated measures The second research question addressed was as follows: which study variables changed significantly more in the enriched egg group compared with the control group? Macular pigment measurement MP was measured at baseline and at the final study visit 8 weeks for both subject groups.
Contrast sensitivity and best-corrected visual acuity CS was measured at baseline and at the final study visit 8 weeks for both subject groups. Table 3 Studies presenting the serum carotenoid and macular pigment MP response to egg supplementation.
All increases or decreases are calculated from the baseline levels unless otherwise stated. Serum carotenoid analysis Serum carotenoid concentrations were measured at baseline, trial midpoint 4 weeks and at the final subject visit 8 weeks. Egg yolk carotenoid analysis Four eggs were taken weekly from the batch of study eggs of both normal and enriched egg groups and tested for their carotenoid content for the duration of the EXIT study.
Serum cholesterol analysis Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and TAG levels were measured at baseline, midpoint 4 weeks and final study visit 8 weeks for both subject groups.
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Discussion This study presents findings of the EXIT, a clinical trial designed to study the impact of the consumption of normal control eggs, karides fajita tarifi carotenoid L and MZ -enriched eggs on serum carotenoid concentrations, visual performance and MP densities in human subjects.
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