The occasional patches of purple prose and arcane vocabulary in the tales do hint at a language learned through study rather than natural usage. The stories were all rejected and he has drifted to Ontario, without money or prospects, living from one day to the next. In this he owes a debt to Norwegian Knut Hamsun, whose writings Grove greatly admired.
Consciousness combines with the art of insinuation to encourage us to read between the lines. Knut Hamsun was a skilled practitioner of insinuation. The primary mystery concerns the identity and ambitions of the flamboyant protagonist Johan Nilsen Nagel, who arrives in a small town unannounced, registers at a hotel, and after his evening meal goes out for a walk.
The narrator describes his after dinner movements:. Where had he been? Only later did it become known that he had walked to the next town and back—along the same long road he had been driven over that morning. He must have had some very urgent business there. When Sara [the maid] opened the door for him, he was wet with perspiration, but he smiled at her and seemed to be in excellent spirits.
Sometimes the transactions are harmless—trinkets are sold at inflated prices—but on occasion bankers and people who might now generously be called entrepreneurs trick settlers out of their farms by enticing them into contracts with crippling conditions. The narrator piques our interest, much as Knut Hamsun does in Mysteriesby pretending not to know the identity of the travellers and posing questions that might occur to an uninformed observer:. The driver was a man; tall as far as one could judge while he was sitting, broad of shoulder, massive, heavy.
He was clad in a clean army shirt, drab-coloured breeches of good cut, with polished leather gaiters hugging the calves of his legs and a wide-brimmed sombrero of black felt on his head. He looked the typical American business man who has left factory or office for a vacation. The four women could not possibly constitute gps rides tacx accessoires family.
More likely he had picked them up on the road to give them a ride? Yet, on that assumption, whence all the baggage? Information is divulged as the scene unfolds before our eyes, the insinuations becoming stronger until the narrator admits to omniscience. But of course his mind is occupied by thoughts of future scams.
Bill Orting, the agent, cannot escape the cycle of money easily earned and soon spent; he refuses to do honest labour and is constitutionally unable to save In this case, with a certain degree of self-aggrandizement, Grove makes his prophet the marginalized character. The narrator says. Even in the new country, however, a prophet arose who preached that property makes a slave of him who owns it.
Unlike the great prophets in the old country, he was neither condemned to take poison nor nailed to the cross nor burned at the stake.
He was simply not heard; his countrymen were too busy.
In A Search for America Grove writes about Canada and America as though they are a singular entity and it is not until the end that Grove offers a qualification. He claims to have based the book on a tramping journal kept in the s, in which he noted that the difference between the old and new worlds was that America looks towards the future while Europe is concerned with the past. He was obviously bothered by the realization that no matter how often he proclaimed the truth about life in Canada, most people ignored him.
He seems not so much to have turned back to his actual past as to have woven out of its fragments a life that would convey the illusion that this man had known and done everything, had been everywhere, and that the fault for his failure to achieve renown was not, therefore, in himself but in his stars—not even in stars, perhaps, but in a world that would not accept him as he believed himself to be. Spettigue We know that Grove had an affinity for this philosopher Pacey 21 and, like Nietzsche, Grove undercuts the seriousness of modernity and its tendency towards dogmatism Pippin in stories that display a familiarity with modernism.
Indeed, with the benefit of hindsight, we can see Grove trying to use his own disreputable past in order to forge a new identity in Canada. Bell, Whitney.
Cavell, Richard. Chen, John Z. Conrad, Joseph. London: J.
Riders to the sea dramatic irony
Dent, De Quincey, Thomas. Tales and Romances. David Masson. Fallon, Erin. Feddersen et. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Gross, Konrad. Reingard M. Rochester: Camden House, Grove, Frederick Philip.
It Needs to Be Said. Ottawa: The Tecumseh Press, A Search for America. A Project Gutenberg of Australia E-book, William Blake also underlines that opposition lies at the core of friendship. He deems it positive. There is a gap between the two characters as far as age and appearance are concerned. In Up, the enthusiastic young boy scout is poles apart from the grumpy old man he pairs up with.
Yet they are bound up, as the rope that ties them to the house suggests, because they share the same spirit of adventure, however different their characters may be.
Dynamic opposition was also the essence of the friendship between artists Andy Warhol and JeanMichel Basquiat. Besides being physically radically different as the picture highlightsthey complemented each other. The Help emphasizes that friendship is about sharing humanity and thus can bring people together beyond barriers such as the colour line. Réponses personnelles des élèves. Eliot et Groucho Marx.
Read the text 1. Mutual warmth and respect Manuel p. Bones et de son maître, un poète sans-abri nommé Willy G. Bones was a pup. Although he is unable to speak properly, he understands human speech. He fears for. Bones against human malevolence. It may seem odd that a dog and such an eccentric man should have become inseparable and come to a complete understanding. Yet, if we are to judge from the example of Mr. Bones and Willy, characters in an odd couple can be on the same wavelength.
Their own oddities or peculiar circumstances can bring them together. Page 35 du manuel, illustration réalisée pour le roman de Paul Auster : a dog with two shadows, one in the shape of a man suggesting that the dog is very much like a human being.
À mettre en relation avec : - Extrait 3, It takes one strange god to know another manuel p. De même dans A mesmerizing bond manuel p. A mesmerizing bond Manuel p. Lennie est un grand gaillard un peu simple qui ne maîtrise pas sa force. George, petit homme sec et intelligent, est toujours là pour veiller sur lui. George pense, Lennie agit. Lennie casse, George répare. I never get no peace. Lennie seems eager to appease George.
They hope to own their own land, settle down, farm and tend rabbits and have enough to live on. George tells most of the story as an experienced story-teller l. George pretends to be reluctant to go on, saying there is no point telling a story Lennie knows by heart l. Colloquial, direct language characteristic of the uneducated, omit or simplify words, break the rules of grammar. Lennie: speaks in short, simply constructed sentences, childlike especially when he repetitively urges George to tell him the dream story.
George: more complex speech, irritable l. The story delights Lennie. It seems as though it soothes and comforts him just as a bedtime fairy story comforts a child. We can guess that their lives are hard, insecure and unrewarding.
The vivid intensity of their dream offsets the misery of real life and their loneliness. Lennie provides the real driving force behind the dream and being his keeper gives George the role and direction in life that keeps him from wasting money on transient good times l. As they are migrant workers, probably displaced from families broken up by the need to travel for work, their friendship is unusual. Yet there is mutual dependency in their couple, which is the basis for sharing their dream.
They are alone in the world and their lives are bound up together. La famille de Genna est donc de gauche, et qui plus est descend des Quakers qui ont fondé Schuyler College, et aidé les noirs à gagner le chemin de la liberté. Elle a obtenu une bourse de mérite en récompense de sa scolarité exemplaire pour venir étudier à Schuyler College.
Genna restera dès lors hantée par la disparition de sa partenaire mort accidentelle? Understanding the fact 1. C Minette: from l. She is full of empathy towards her, eager to please her, to get more intimately and closely acquainted with her, so much so that her own personality appears self-effacing.
Their relationship is therefore based on alternating proximity and distance. All this stresses the fact that for Genna, nothing is certain or clearly stated. She can only express suppositions and hypotheses.
I think I laughed. I will! Yet, though she appears to the reader as being quite lonely in that couple, she does not seem to fully realize or acknowledge it.
Racial relationship in the United States is a very complex issue. Even after the victory of the Civil War and the abolition of slavery in the second. Still, the relationship between the two girls shows that the racial issue is far from being a thing of the past in the s in America. Her attitude may be the result of what her community underwent for many years, and is in that sense, understandable yet it is hard to approve of or sympathise with such disdainful behavior on her part.
What personality does she really have, then? As a consequence, the former victim has thus become a kind of bully, while the former bully now turns into a meek, sheepish character. It might soins visage electrique interesting to develop this discussion and relate it to the election of Barack Obama, who, as the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas, integrates both communities and has relatives scattered across three continents.
The issue of racial relationships in America has reached another dimension with his presidency. The picture is a faithful representation of Minette: the girl does not look at the camera, just as Minette always seems to elude real communication. She stands out against a background of rather mundane, banal students which is here illustrated by their being blurred.
She looks kind, while Minette is described as disdainful. It takes one strange god to know another Manuel p. Estragon sounds disappointed and pessimistic, not wanting to go anywhere else. Yet they do not leave the stage and stand still. Their similitude is reinforced by the echoes to be found in their cues: l.
This theme of repetition is one of the features of the Theatre of the Absurd. Moreover, the optimist as played by Vladimir, and the pessimist, as performed by Estragon are nothing else than the two sides of the same coin. Put together, they form but one human being, one single identity. What is interesting in the way they communicate is the repetitions they use cf. What seems important is not so much the meaning of their words as the fact that they utter words to keep contact, to establish and maintain connection.
This is what Roman Jakobson calls the phatic function of language, when words are used for the sake of interaction, regardless of the meaning of the conversation. What is striking in the link between cues and stage directions is that there is a gap between what the characters say and what they do. This discrepancy between words and action may show that words have become meaningless as they do not impact reality.
Yet they are what is left to people, that is why people still resort to them. The audience does not know why he is being expected, yet the spectators understand that his presence is greatly needed.
Godot may represent hope, some change for the better, God A tree. The place does not point to a particular country. The scene could take place anywhere in the world. The setting as well as the characters thus acquires a universal dimension, which leads any spectator to identify with what happens on stage. Both characters may represent mankind. The moon may allude to the cycle of Nature and Life. It is to be related to the theme of repetition that was previously developed. The fact that the moon stands still is an echo to what happens on stage, where the characters do not move.
They end up looking more alike, using the same words, repeating the same things, having fallen victim to habits, routine, yet still feeling that deep inside, they are irreducibly different. Why they stay together is never clearly explained, it remains mysterious 7. Many elements relate this extract to the Theatre of the Absurd: the role played by language in the scene, the theme of cycle and repetition, the enigmatic, absurd dimension of life, the universal dimension of what occurs on stage, etc.
To what extent does it take one strange god to know another? This sentence is polysemous: it may mean that only strange people can understand one another.
Other interpretations may obviously be developed. Writing and Speaking Create and perform the scene of a play Cette tâche inspirée de la pièce The Odd Couple permet de re donner vie de manière ludique à la thématique étudiée en en faisant un ressort dramatique, potentiellement comique. Les personnages emblématiques seront donc à privilégier. On a soin de faire servir les analyses à une véritable interprétation des textes étudiés, sans isoler les procédés et en accordant aux éléments de contextualisation leur nécessaire importance.
Le professeur veille à proposer dans ces groupements des textes qui permettent aux élèves de percevoir la nature et le sens des écarts, des variations et des transpositions. Les personnages shakespeariens. Cette problématique interroge non seulement sur les modalités de ce rapport quels liens unissent les deux représentations du protagoniste, quels éléments les séparent, distinguentmais aussi sur les raisons et effets, incidences de ce rapport. Série de questions permettant de lancer des pistes de discussions.
Burns et C. Toolbox lexicale. Ainsi, les deux textes se complètent utilement. Les quatre pièces du corpus sont des tragédies aux personnages célèbres : Roméo et Juliette, Lady Macbeth, Hamlet et Othello. Différences : Les différences ont trait aux modalités de réécriture de ces pièces.
Dans le troisième set, la réécriture est transformation de la personnalité et des actes du personnage shakespearien. Dans le quatrième set, la réécriture est dialogue entre personnages shakespeariens et personnages contemporains.
Articulation des textes Les textes critiques égrènent différentes façons de retravailler un matériau littéraire existant. À partir de ces pistes, le dossier se propose de décliner ces diverses manières de réinventer un personnage, une intrigue shakespeariens. Que ce serait-il passé si Gertrude avait été la coupable? Emergera probablement la notion de décalage avec la pièce originale, incongruités qui illustrent la thématique et problématique de ce dossier. Quand le théâtre rencontre la peinture et la photographie.
Les buts et effets de cette transposition pourront être évoqués et débattus : provoquer le rire, attirer un public contemporain, faire revivre Shakespeare, se moquer de Shakespeare, etc. Commentaire sur Reading on your own Le texte choisi est une variation drolatique sur le thème de la pièce Hamlet, à laquelle elle fait explicitement et implicitement référence.
Shaking Shakespeare alludes to the various rewritings, adaptations, transformations, etc. They are a way to shake what has come to be seen as tradition, canon. Conversely, as the texts suggest, if people are already given some elements about characters, plots, it may help them get rid of whatever inhibition they may have when confronted to a blank page. A new time period and location Manuel p. Ils se retrouvent ici, Tony étant parti à la recherche de sa bien-aimée.
Dans cette célèbre scène du. Les deux extraits étant des passages extrêmement célèbres, on pourra aussi songer à les faire visionner par les élèves : des versions internet en sont aisément accessibles, beaucoup de théâtres incluent également la pièce de Shakespeare dans leur programme. Tony serenades his lover on the fire escape. There is a tension between danger of being found with the enemy and passion. Romeo serenades his lover from the orchard.
The previous table shows the many similarities between both texts. The change from the nurse to the father makes the situation appear even more dangerous as a father is more directly related to his child than a nurse, hence heightening the risk run by the two lovers. The back alley creates an urban, hence maybe more dynamic setting, than the bucolic location of the orchard in Romeo and Juliet. Resetting the play in the s also allows Laurents to change the language and style.
I am afeard. Nurse [Within] Madam! TONY I love you. When will I see you? TONY Tomorrow. Come there. TONY At sundown. Good night. TONY Good night. Reacting 4. The emphasis laid on the cosmic dimension of love, echoes the vision Elizabethans had of the world The Elizabethan World Orderwhereby correspondences were established between what happened at a personal level and what happened at other levels universal, natural, social, animal….
Last but not least, one should bear in mind that Shakespeare did not invent the story of Romeo and Juliet. The play is also quite similar in plot, theme, and dramatic ending to the story of Pyramus and Thisbe, told by Ovid, the Roman poet in his Metamorphoses. This shows that the process of rewriting and adapting is not a new one, and that in the past, people did not pay as much attention to the concept of intellectual property as they do now.
The language of love is often assimilated to poetry, and this passage from Romeo and Juliet bears its characteristics: the use of rhymes, images, rhythm, the topic itself, etc.
Using a musical to adapt this play is thus quite apposite as a musical also resorts to the same devices. Using music to speak the language of love is thus relevant to be compared with the use of other artistic means like painting, sculpture: are they forceful enough to convey this musicality? À mettre en relation avec : — Warm up manuel p. Imagining offstage events Manuel p.
Aux prises avec des sentiments de culpabilité et de paranoïa, il fait régner la tyrannie en devenant souverain, et est amené à commettre de plus en plus de meurtres pour parer aux doutes et à la suspicion qui entourent son accession au pouvoir.
Cette folie meurtrière causera sa perte et celle de sa femme. She is also very close to the armourer: watches him, asks him questions fourth paragraph. This is why she wants complete darkness. If she is to commit murder, she has to get rid of these supposedly womanly characteristics. She speaks as if she needed some external help to commit her crime.
This assistance takes the form of spirits helping her to execute her murderous plan. The imperative mode may in fact address no one else but herself.
Lady Macbeth is an ambitious character as she wants her husband to become king which will lead faire un regime en 1 semaine quantité to the throne too. She appears very determined, authoritative use of the imperative moderuthless, violent, and yet by insisting so much on getting rid of any feeling of guilt and compassion, she may betray her inner sensitivity.
As an adult the charming features seem to have disappeared or at least they do not seem present here 5. It announces the future development of her criminal temper. It is a prolepsis. The text on p. It contains all the germs of character that one recognizes in Lady Macbeth when she reaches maturity. The painting on p. She seems very inquisitive, self-assertive, giving us a piercing look. The lady on p.
Lady Macbeth is an important character, a noble woman, who means murder and death. À mettre en relation avec : — Landmarks manuel p. What would happen if… Manuel p. Hamlet: agitated, violent, brutal, furious, impassioned, inflamed, vehement Gertrude: tormented, distressed King Hamlet: a noble character, with godlike qualities in terms of appearance and personality.
King Claudius: far below his brother in terms of appearance and temper, a murderer, a villain, a thief, a vicious character. Gertrude: sarcastic and ironic King Hamlet: handsome, great, noble, but also selfish, no fun, too much bent on piety, a moralizer, intolerant and hard to live with. King Claudius: not as handsome as his brother, overweight, but more epicurean, bon vivant, bon viveur, hedonist, merrier.
Comparisons: an eye like Mars; a station like the herald Mercury; like a mildewed ear; these words like daggers. She gives indication as to what Hamlet is doing while she speaks. Indeed, in the original tragedy, the style is lofty and noble with the use of metaphors, similes, etc. He is reduced to silence, just as he tries to silence his mother by delivering his long speech in the tragedy. Prince Hamlet is here no more than a ghost, a presence felt but never heard nor seen, just as his father who has been turned into a ghost too.
King Claudius changes from a usurper, murderer, villain… to a bon viveur. In terms se motiver pour maigrir et faire du sport 2014 style, the burlesque reversal has already been pointed out.
The plot is also changed as it is no longer Prince Hamlet accusing his uncle and mother, but Gertrude herself proudly confessing to her crime. It explores the canon is so far as it requires a perfect knowledge of the original play to understand the innuendoes, twists, that Atwood uses or creates.
À mettre en relation avec : — Ouverture du chapitre manuel p. Cette dernière postule que Shakespeare aurait largement puisé dans les histoires de deux comédies écrites par un auteur inconnu, pour rédiger ses tragédies. The strange element is the presence and intervention of Constance, a contemporary character, in the tragedy.
His work is not presented as being unique but as borrowing grossesse et laser visage 2014 other texts. The myth according to which he was such a genius that he invented each of his stories is here totally debunked. This may show that all piece of literature borrows from previous works before becoming itself a source of inspiration for other artists.
By intervening, she changes the original course of the tragedy and transforms what was a tragedy into a play with a happier ending a comedy, or a farce, as she says. Yet she does not know if her intervention was planned by the author in which case she is just a character of the play, among other charactersor by herself in which case she becomes a dramatist herself, or even a stage director of the play. She has been turned into a character herself.
The tone of the passage becomes comic when she intervenes. The amazement of the two male protagonists is also part of the visual comic effect. However, the idea of intellectual property is a rather new concept, as a lot of writers in the past, like Virgil, were not the originators of the stories they told, and did not consider it a problem to pluck from other sources.
They considered that only the gods owned the characters and all creation in general. Faire jouer ces dialogues devrait constituer une motivation. Speaking … as an actor La deuxième tâche consiste essentiellement à présenter une adaptation scénique des extraits étudiés. On pourra, comme précédemment, diviser la classe en différents groupes : groupe des acteurs, metteurs en scène, décor, son, lumière, maquillage, costumes, etc.
Recap Les réponses proposées ici ne sont bien évidemment pas exhaustives. Characters often offer complex, fascinating, rich personalities: lovers are doomed, villains are torn between sin and guilt… Shakespeare brilliantly captures the meanderings of the human soul.
Then, the reader has to compare both works to see what is. It requires analytical skills. The reader then has to see whether this remodeling is successful or not: it requires critical abilities. Rewriting a canon both explores and explodes it. War, Fascism, concentration camps, rubber truncheons, atomic bombs, etc.
We cannot help this …. Comme le souligne Malcom Bradbury manuel p. Comme dans toute fable et tout conte, il y a une morale. Les illustrations p. Le régime totalitaire peut se pavaner. La boucle se boucle, les animaux sont revenus à leur point de départ : la tyrannie dont ils se croyaient libérés revient sous une forme quasiment semblable. Ajout d'une question p. How can it be linked to the title and theme of this chapter?
Atwood, p. Bradbury, p. Orwell, p. Le premier extrait Text 1, manuel p. Owner is called Mr Jones. He is still the undisputed master — he has a gun. Chapter II Major dies soon after that evening.
The Rebellion happens sooner than expected. On pourra qg perdre du poids yoga la lecture de ces lignes et avant la lecture du texte p.
Text 1 Manuel p. Le texte p. Résumé de ce qui précède : Chapter III Animals now have their own ideology and own the means of production.
Napoleon takes no interest in them. The lies the men spread about Animal Farm show how afraid they are of losing their power and their property.
It takes place in the barn. All the animals attend the Meeting — except the dogs which only appear when Napoleon calls for them. Up to now, the animals have been able to talk about the organization of their work and of the farm. They have been lied to and manipulated but they could at least ask questions and voice their doubts. Read on Le texte p. Shortages begin to occur. Napoleon declares trade must be opened with the neighbouring farms: Mr.
Whymper is not yet a friend but is no longer an enemy. Commandment 2: Whatever goes on four legs, or has wings, is a friend. Snowball has been expulsed; Mollie has gone. Commandment 7: Animals are equal. Text 3 Manuel p. Men have accepted the existence of Animal Farm: they no longer call it Manor Farm. They are still not convinced it can succeed, and some openly hope it will fail but business is business and dealing with Animal Farm is not unimaginable to them.
The Pigs move into the farmhouse and use it as men would meals in the kitchen, drawing-room as recreation room, sleep in beds. His role is to confuse the animals so that all they can do is conclude that he is right. Squealer always proceeds with logic but that logic is fraught with contradictions.
Résumé de ce qui précède : Chapter VI The fear and terror tactics continue when Napoleon blames the destruction of the windmill on Snowball. The problem is not that the pigs are sleeping in beds as humans did, it is rather that they are abusing their power in a manner similar to the humans. Whymper and negotiates with Mr. Frederick and Mr. Chapter IX Food shortages continue and all animals receive reduced rations, except for the pigs and the dogs.
More stories are spread about Snowball. Moses the raven returns to the farm and once again sings the praise of Sugarcandy Mountain. Squealer does what he is good at: explains that what the eye can see is not true. Chapter X Years have passed; many animals who had witnessed the Rebellion have died. The only animals that even remember the Rebellion are Clover, Benjamin, Moses, and some of the pigs. Text 4 Manuel p.
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