During the time of the Roman civilization, a number of methods were used for colouring hair; one was the use of lead combs dipped in vinegar presumably producing lead acetateand another was the use of walnut stain. Pliny cited more than recipes for colouring hair with vegetable and mineral materials. In England, the Elizabethans treated hair with potash alum aluminium potassium sulfate followed by a concoction of rhubarb in order to produce a red tone, which was popular because of the colour of the Queen's hair.
At the time of the French Revolution, 24 million pounds [11 tonnes] of starch were sold each year in France for use in colouring hair. In this technique, starch, a binder and, possibly, small amounts of colouring material were applied to the hair. Bleaching of hair has also been popular for many centuries. In order to mimic the appearance of their Anglo slaves, Roman women devised a method of bleaching their hair using a mixture of tallow soap and the ashes of burnt beech wood.
In sixteenth-century Venice, women treated their hair with a caustic soda solution and spent many hours sitting in the sun to decolorize the melanin. Thiellay, demonstrated the use of hydrogen peroxide for bleaching hair at the Paris Exhibition.
Of the hair colouring products currently on the market, only henna and lead acetate have a history of more than years. The modern hair colouring industry was born in the nineteenth century with the development of organic chemistry. InHaussman observed that a mixture of para -phenylenediamine and an oxidizing agent produced a coloured material. Inthe first patent for the exploitation of this observation in hair dyeing was acquired by Monnet, who actually used 2,5-diaminotoluene and hydrogen peroxide.
Shortly thereafter, patents were obtained by H.
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Erdmann over the period —97 for the use as hair dyes of a wide variety of para -phenylenediamines and aminophenols with hydrogen peroxide Anon. Professional hairdressers and beauticians who work in beauty salons parlours and barber shops typically shampoo, cut and style hair and apply hair colourants, waving and straightening preparations and conditioners.
They may also be manicurists, trimming finger and toe nails and applying nail care products. In the USA inthere were about 60 to 70 salons and close to professional hairdressers and beauticians McDonough, In Europe, there are between and salons in which about 1 professional personnel work, not including manicurists. Over different chemicals are currently used to make beauty products worldwide Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association, Beauty products are manufactured by a few large companies, which make the majority of products used personally and professionally, and by many small companies which formulate products for professional trades.
The various categories of products used by hairdressers are described in general terms below. The products are principally hair preparations but also include nail care products and, occasionally, skin care products. Although one of the focuses of this monograph is hair colourants, an enormous range of chemical substances may be present in beauty salons. Rather than attempting to list all of the chemicals that are or have been used in beauty products, this section gives the general composition of each type of product and examples of typical chemicals or chemical classes.
Compounds used by hairdressers, beauticians and consumers that have been evaluated in the IARC Monographs series. Few actual measurements of the exposures of professional hairdressers are available. Use patterns provide a qualitative picture of the potential exposures of both hairdressers and clients.
Information on skin penetration and inhalation is mentioned see also section 4. In Finland, however, it was estimated that only about one-third of hairdressers currently use protective gloves when dyeing hair Pukkala et al.
The method of dye application may affect exposures; for example, permanent cream dyes are commonly applied with a brush, whereas other dyes are more often worked into the hair by hand. The most important of these are hair 62 engineer regiment indian army preparations bleaches, dyescleansing and conditioning products shampoos, conditioning agentshair-styling preparations setting lotions, hair sprayspermanent-wave preparations and hair-straightening preparations.
In recent years, fashion trends have spurred the development of new products, such as high-hold hair lacquers and styling gels and dyes that give brilliant colours. Toxicological considerations have also become increasingly important in product formulation Lang, ab.
Bleaching has two objectives: to give hair a lighter look or, more often, to prepare it for application of a dye preparation, generally yielding a shade lighter than the natural one Zviak, a. The chemistry of bleaching is described in detail by Zviak a. All of the bleaching methods used currently are oxidation processes. Solutions are normally preserved with phosphoric acid, quinine sulfate, pyrophosphates, acetanilide, phenacetin, ortho -oxyquinoline sulfate, ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid and certain stannates.
Hydrogen peroxide can be used alone to bleach hair, but in hairdressing salons it is mixed with an alkaline solution, typically ammonia, before use, in order to accelerate the process. Persulfates are often used in the formulation of bleaching powders that are mixed with hydrogen peroxide just before use, particularly as the sodium, potassium and ammonium salts; sodium percarbonate is used occasionally, diluted in water or hydrogen peroxide just before use; sodium perborate and magnesium perborate are rarely used; and magnesium dioxide and barium dioxide are sometimes present in bleaching powders.
Bleaching formulations are available in several forms: hydrogen peroxide solutions and emulsions, creams, shampoos, powders, pastes and oils Zviak, a. In order to remove permanent and semi-permanent hair colourings, hairdressers use reducing agents sodium hydrosulfite or sodium or zinc formaldehyde sulfoxylate dissolved just before use in acidified water or high-strength oxidants such as those mentioned above Zviak, a.
About one-third is bought by salon owners and the remainder by retail outlets for home use. The types of hair colourants are classified according to the permanence of the effect, i. Only permanent and semi-permanent hair colourants are used to a significant extent in the hairdressing trade, whereas all three classes are used extensively by consumers.
In Japan and parts of Asia, permanent dyes comprise an even greater share of the market. Semi-permanent dyes were introduced into Europe about 40 years ago and into the USA some 35 years ago. Permanent dyes Zviak, c : Permanent hair dyes, otherwise known as oxidation dyes, represent the major segment of the hair dye market. The hair is dyed by oxidation of dye precursors which penetrate the hair fibre, where they react with hydrogen peroxide to produce coloured indo dyes.
Since hydrogen peroxide is an excellent decolorizing agent for melanin, the hair's natural colouring matter, manufacturers can balance the amounts of hydrogen peroxide and of dye precursors in such a way as to produce lightening, darkening or matching of the natural colour of the hair.
Compounds used as couplers include resorcinol, meta -aminophenol, meta -phenylenediamine and certain other reactive intermediates such as 1-naphthol and phenylmethylpyrazolone. Permanent hair colouring preparations may contain as many as 15 different dyes and dye precursors so that they will produce the desired shade.
Dye precursors are formulated in ammoniacal or detergent solutions. Two typical formulations of permanent hair colours are presented in Table 2and oxidation dye precursors used in the USA and Europe are listed in Table 3. Major oxidation dye precursors used in the USA and Europe. Most of the more important ingredients in permanent dyes have been in use for over 50 years, although a few new ones were introduced during the last 20 years.
The use of some ingredients has been discontinued, usually simultaneously in North America, Europe and Japan, as a result of findings in assays of carcinogenicity in rodents. For example, use of 2,4-diaminotoluene 4-methyl- meta -phenylenediamine was discontinued in —71 and that of 2,4-diaminoanisole 4-methoxy- meta -phenylenediamine some six years later. For other reasons, para -phenylenediamine was not used in France or Germany from about to —85, during which time 2,5-diaminotoluene 2-methyl- para -phenylenediamine was used pousse cheveux hiver 54 its place.
About g of this mixture containing 0. During that time, the colour develops and the natural hair pigment is lightened. The residual product is then removed from the hair by rinsing. Permanent colouring materials occur in a number of different forms: liquids, creams, gels, shampoos and powders. Liquid dyes have been replaced by cream- or gel-based formulae.
Cream dyes are emulsions formed from self-emulsifying raw materials, such as fatty oxyethyleneated alcohols partially sulfated or notfatty amides and oxyethylated vegetable oils. Emollients such as lanolin derivatives, fatty alcohols and cation-active compounds may be added. Gel dyes or, more properly, gelling dyes offer the advantages of both liquids and creams. A number of formulations exist, but the following are typical: i soap solutions, generally ammonium oleate; ii solutions of low oxyethylated nonionic surfactants, most often polyoxyethylated alkylphenols; and iii anion-cation complexes in solution.
These materials colour and bleach less than other permanent dye products. Powder dyes contain very stable oxidizing agents, such as sodium perborate, in powder form, and only non-lightening shades can be formulated. Owing to the rate of hair growth about 1. Permanent hair colouring products are therefore used about six to nine times per year in Europe and North America.
Measurements of skin penetration of some oxidation dye precursors are discussed in section 4. That level of wash fastness is achieved by using low-molecular-weight dyes capable of penetrating the hair cortex. Semi-permanent hair colours contain direct dyes, which are generally nitro derivatives of phenylenediamines or aminophenols, together with a selected number of azo dyes and aminoanthraquinone dyes. Because the dyes in semipermanent hair colours are preformed and do not require added oxidant, such products cannot lighten the natural hair colour.
Some typical formulations are presented in Table 4 ; semi-permanent dyes used in the USA and Europe are listed in Table 5. Henna, an orange-red hair colouring derived from the powdered leaves and stems of Lawsonia inermisa tropical shrub, has been used since antiquity and is still used, by both professional hairdressers and consumers Feinland et al. The active colouring matter in henna is 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone Farris, Ingredients of typical semi-permanent hair colouring products.
The dyes used in semi-permanent colourants have been used for 30 years or less, which is shorter than for permanent dyes, except for a few of the direct dyes that were used as toners in permanent colourants the unsubstituted nitrophenylenediamines and nitroaminophenols.
Use of HC Blue No. Semi-permanent colouring products come in several forms. Colour rinses are the simplest means for altering hair colour: The hair is rinsed with a dilute aqueous or aqueous alcoholic dye solution. The dyes are generally cationic and are adsorbed by the hair surface. More pronounced colour changes are possible with tints, which are formulated with direct dyes; intense colours can be obtained, especially with nitro dyes.
With foam tints, a surfactant solution is dispensed as a foam from an aerosol. Tints can be also thickened with cellulose derivatives, natural mucilage or synthetic polymers.
Concentrated solutions with intense colouring action can be obtained by using co-solvents e. In emulsion tints, the dye base consists of an emulsion Clausen, Semi-permanent colours are applied at 35—60 g to the hair for 10—30 min, followed by rinsing. The colouring lotion contains 0. Users either apply such products at least monthly or use them only on special occasions, for example, three to four times a year.
Measurements of skin penetration of some semi-permanent dyes are discussed in section 4. They are normally formulated with water-soluble acid or basic dyes of the type used in wool dyeing, which have a molecular size too great to penetrate the cortex of the hair. As a result, the dye is deposited on the surface, from which it is easily removed by washing.
Temporary colourants may also comprise systems which produce insoluble complexes of an acid dye as a quaternary ammonium or metal salt. A commercial dye formulation may contain between 0. Temporary dye formulations may also contain nitro aromatics as colourants, together with anionic detergents and urea to increase the solubility.
Temporary colourants are occasionally used in the hair-dressing trade but are more commonly used directly by consumers at home. While there are few data on skin absorption, very little of such materials will pass through the skin owing to the relatively high molecular weight of the dyes. Virtually no metal salt e. Furthermore, the selection of colours available is limited, and the shades look metallic and unnatural.
Metal salts are also incompatible with permanent waving and bleaching of hair Clausen, Shampoos are cosmetic products for cleaning the hair and scalp. Shampoos are the cosmetic products most often applied to the hair.
Some of the characteristics considered in formulating modern shampoos are their ability to clean, to lather and to make the hair easy to comb, their capacity to condition the hair, mildness compatibility with skin, eyes and mucosa; no burning on the scalp or in the eyescolour, appearance and fragrance Lang, a. The principal constituents and most important raw materials of shampoos are surfactants, and nearly all modern shampoos are aqueous surfactant preparations.
Surfactants break the bonds between dirt and hair components and suspend the dirt in the aqueous medium Lang, a. Bar soaps were probably used for washing hair from aboutwhen they first became available, until the s and s, when liquid soaps and cream shampoos were introduced. The first surfactants used for hair cleansing were fat soaps. In hard water, however, soaps create a deposit of calcium and magnesium fatty acid salts on the hair, so their use must be followed by treatment with an organic acid, such as citric or acetic acid.
Another drawback is the alkaline pH of soap, which may increase the swelling of hair. In order to meet the requirements of high cleansing power, good lathering and safety for the user and for the environmentmodern shampoos are formulated mainly with anionic surfactants.
Amphoteric surfactants are also used, whereas nonionic and cationic surfactants play only secondary roles in special-purpose formulations Lang, a. The most important anionic surfactants used in shampoos are alkyl sulfates ammonium lauryl sulfatealkyl and alkylaryl sulfonates, olefin sulfonates, secondary alkyl sulfonates, alkyl ether sulfates, sulfosuccinates disodium lauryl ether sulfosuccinate and protein-fatty acid condensates potassium coco-hydrolysed animal protein Lang, a.
Sulfonated oils, such as sulfonated castor, mineral and olive oils, were introduced for use in shampoos in the s; their use continued into the s, with declining popularity.
Sulfated fatty alcohols were first introduced in Europe in the s and in the USA late in the s in salon products and some retail products. The trend in the late s was to increase the use of liquid shampoos over that of creams, and there was then a movement to use of ammonium lauryl sulfate, introduced in the early s, and laurylether sulfates. Laurylether sulfates are the preferred detergents in Europe. Amphoteric surfactants used in shampoos can be divided into two classes: betaines coco-amidopropylbetaine and alkyl amphoglycinates and alkyl amphopropionates coco-amphocarboxyglycinates and coco-amphocarboxypropionates.
Cationic surfactants have a positive charge and are strongly absorbed by the hair. Only a few special-purpose shampoos, especially those for the treatment of severely damaged hair, contain these compounds. The nonionic surfactants in use are polysorbates Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 80 and fatty alcohol ethoxylates and polyglycerides Lang, a.
Another important class of constituents of shampoos is foam builders, typified by the fatty acid mono- and dialkanolamides Lang, a introduced in the late s. By the mid s, virtually all liquid shampoos based on lauryl sulfates contained alkanolamides. Two types of amides are used.
Condensation of 1 mol of fatty acid with 1 mol of an alkanolamine such as diethanolamine gives a water-soluble product; condensation of 1 mol of fatty acid with 2 mol of diethanolamine gives a more water-soluble product.
The types of alkanolamides can have appreciable levels of free alkanolamine, fatty acid amide and free fatty acids. Some of the commonest examples of these constituents are the amides derived from reaction of diethanolamine with lauric acid and with coconut oil fatty acids Kritchevsky, ; Barker, Other constituents of shampoos include: refatting agents, conditioning additives cationic polymers such as quaternary hydroxyalkyl cellulosesthickeners salts such as sodium and ammonium chloride in combination with amphoteric surfactantsopacifiers fatty acid alkanolamides in mixtures with ethylene glycol monostearate and distearate or cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcoholcolouring agents, fragrances and buffers pH stabilizers, such as citric, tartaric, adipic and phosphoric acids and their salts.
The preservatives added to shampoos today include formaldehyde and its donors and isothiazolinones, introduced in the s. From the s to the mids, the main preservatives were parabens and phenylmercuric acetate Liem,which was banned in the late s Feinland et al.
Shampoos may be clear, opaque or pearly liquids, gels or aerosols. Shampoos with special additives include those for frequent use and for babies, conditioning shampoos, antidandruff preparations, shampoos for oily hair, tinting shampoos and those containing insecticides.
Shampoos for frequent use and for babies contain especially mild surfactants e. Conditioning shampoos are used to make the hair easy to comb in the wet state and glossy and soft when dry. These effects are provided chiefly through the addition of cationic polymers; addition of amphoteric surfactants or refatting agents can improve the conditioning qualities of anionic surfactant formulations.
Antidandruff shampoos contain agents that reduce excessive scalp flaking to a normal level. The most important antidandruff ingredients are zinc pyrithione, Octopirox 1-hydroxymethyl[2,4,4-trimethylpentyl]-2[1 H ]-pyridone and Climbazole Baypival; 1-[4-chloro-phenoxy][1-imidazolyl]-3,3-dimethylbutanone Lang, a.
Coal-tar formulations Weinberg, and selenium disulfide have also been used extensively, but their use is regulated in some countries. Hair can be damaged in a number of ways: by climatic effects such as humidity and temperature extremes weathering ; by exposure to sunlight; by washing with products containing surfactants; by cosmetic treatments, such as bleaching, dyeing, permanent waving and straightening; and by combing and brushing.
These processes alter the physical, chemical and morphological properties of hair as well as its reaction to cosmetic treatments such as dyeing and permanent waving. They lead to perceptible roughening of the hair surface, difficulty in combing, tangling, increased static charge, formation of split ends and loss of natural lustre.
Hair conditioning agents prevent, retard or mask such changes. Their action is restricted largely to modifying the surface qualities of the hair and making it glossy. Nearly all modern shampoos, permanent wave lotions, setting lotions and dyes contain conditioning additives that prevent excessive mechanical damage to the hair.
This simple type of conditioning may not be sufficient for severely damaged or long hair, and special conditioning treatments are available for such cases Lang, a. The earliest conditioning treatments were waxes and oils vegetable and mineral oils, petrolatumwhich provided lubrication and enhanced lustre, and acid rinses lemon juice, vinegarwhich counteracted the undesirable effects of soap shampoos. During the s and s, these ingredients were combined with surfactants in anionic emulsions as after-shampoo rinses.
Alkaline rinses included water-softening ingredients such as borax and trisodium phosphate Wall, In the mids, the quaternary ammonium compound, stearyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, began to be investigated for use as an after-shampoo treatment. By the early s, almost all after-shampoo conditioners contained quaternary ammonium compounds as cationic surfactants.
Typical quaternary compounds in current use include cetyldimethylammonium chloride and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, sometimes in formulations with fatty alcohols such as cetylstearyl alcohol or with simethicone Lang, a.
Cationic polymers can also be used in conditioning treatments, together with special ingredients such as antidandruff additives.
The addition of special wax components yields pearly preparations; if water-insoluble components are omitted and cationic polymers are added, the formulae obtained are transparent and clear.
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Conditioning treatments are generally rinsed out after they have been allowed to work for a defined time; however, some newer products with a lower content of active ingredients can be left on the hair without rinsing Lang, a. Styling preparations stabilize a hair-style during or after its creation with comb, brush or rollers, usually as a temporary set. Styling products may also make hair easier to manage, for example, by facilitating wet combing and brushing.
The products are mainly setting lotions and hair sprays. Styling preparations are generally left on the hair and are not rinsed out. Their active ingredients are usually dissolved polymers, known as film-forming agents, which are deposited on the hair after evaporation of a solvent Lang, b. They may be applied before hair is wound on rollers and dried wave sets or before use of a hair dryer, brush or comb to style the hair blow-dry sets Lang, b.
The first preparations comparable to modern setting lotions were aqueous or aqueous alcoholic solutions and gels of natural substances, such as egg white, sugar solutions, plant mucilage pectins, alginates, carrageenan, karaya gum, tragacanth and beer.
They had the drawback of forming opaque, brittle residues which created dust during combing or brushing and became sticky in the presence of moisture. Modern setting lotions contain polymers film-forming agentssolvents, agents to facilitate combing, plasticizers, fragrances, colouring agents, ultra-violet radiation stabilizers, preservatives if necessary and other special ingredients Lang, b.
Film-formers are nonionic, anionic or cationic polymers dissolved in water or water-alcohol mixtures. Nonionic film-forming polymers include polyvinylpyrrolidone, the first polymer used for this purpose, and vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymers.
Anionic film formers are vinyl acetate-crotonic acid copolymers or copolymers of methyl vinyl ether and maleic acid semi-esters.
Both types of polymer are usually neutralized with organic amines such as 2-aminomethyl-l,3-propanediol, 3-aminomethylpropanol or triisopropanol-amine. Other anionic polymers are terpolymers of vinyl acetate, crotonic acid and vinyl esters and graft polymers of vinyl acetate, crotonic acid and poly ethylene oxide. Cationic polymers have an affinity for keratin, thus making the hair easier to untangle; they also prevent the accumulation of static charge during combing and brushing.
The most important cationic film-forming polymers are quaternary vinylpyrrolidone-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymers CTFA Polyquaternium 11vinylpyrrolidone-vinylimidazole copolymers CTFA Polyquaternium 16cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose CTFA Polyquaternium 10poly dimethyldiallyIammonium chloride CTFA Polyquaternium 6poly- dimethyl-diallylammonium chloride copolymers CTFA Polyquaternium 7 and chitosan obtained from chitin by alkali treatment or its derivatives Lang, b.
The solvents used in setting lotions are water, ethanol, 2-propanol and their mixtures. If your hair has already been bleached then it will most likely go to how it was then which is usually an orangey yellow color. After you have used this move onto the next step. Buy a blue or powdered bleach to get rid of orange tones and to lighten your hair more ready for the next stage. Follow instructions on bleach. If your hair is naturally blonde i suggest you skip this stage as your hair will most likely be light enough to dye already from the stripper.
Use an ash blonde hair dye. This will also help in cancelling out yellow tones caused by the bleach in order for the platinum or blonde to take place. I think blonde hair is actually sexiest, but brown hair can become really sexy too.
Black hair will be never sexy. It's just really boring and boring and flatters few complexions. Blonde hair looks best with azure eyes.
Removing red pigmentation from the hair is a notoriously difficult task in the beauty world, but this doesn't mean it's impossible. You just have to know what needs to be done and how to do it. So if you've been dying your hair red for too long and you need a change, follow these steps and go from red to blonde! First you will have to bleach your hair.
For a lot of women and men the thought of bleaching their hair is terrifying. As long as you know what your doing and what products to use there is no reason almost anyone cannot bleach their hair successfully and without incident. First, select a bleaching product from the drug store, preferably a name brand product you can be confident is tried and true L'Oreal, Clairol, Revlon, etc. You can purchase your hair coloring products from a beauty supply if you prefer, but in my experience drug store products work just as well and they have the added benefit of coming with instructions.
I recommend Clairol Nicen'Easy Born Blonde Maximum, everything you need to bleach your hair is here including gloves and detailed instructions. Follow the instructions to the T. Make sure that you do the strand test before applying the product all over your head. Generally this involves cutting a small piece of hair from the back of your head where the hair is the darkest and where the small chunk you've removed will not cause a visible variation, and testing the product on that single strand.
This will help you determine how long you will need to leave the product on, as well as whether or not your hair is in good enough condition to withstand the bleaching process. I know I told you to follow the instructions to the T, but I do have one recommendation contrary to the directions you'll find in the box.
Generally bleaching products will tell you to wait to apply the product to your roots until about half way through the entire bleaching process.
If you have extremely sensitive skin, bad allergies, or any other reason to believe that the bleach will be a harmful irritant to your skin, then aliments quil faut éviter pour maigrir 2014 to the directions. Otherwise it is best to apply the bleach all over your hair from root to tip from the beginning of the process. As long as you don't rub the bleach into your scalp you shouldn't have any problems.
You can avoid getting the bleach directly on your scalp by splitting your hair into sections and then combing the product through your hair with a comb that has small, tight teeth. Comb up from the roots and out to the ends. You will inevitably get some bleach on your scalp, but as long as you try to keep it away from your scalp by combing each strand up and away from your head, you will get a minimal amount on the scalp and you will avoid rubbing it into your skin, which is really the thing you want to avoid.
When the bleaching process is finished don't freak out if your hair has turned a very light, bright orange. This is probably exactly what will happen. When lightening hair from red to blonde bleaching alone is not likely to do the trick. You'll need a semi-permanent ash blonde toner to complete the process.
This will only require about 20 minutes to process and is easy to apply as semi-permanent colors are gentle and don't require any concern with keeping the product away from the scalp unless of course you have allergies, but if your allergies are bad enough for the semi-permanent to irritate your skin, you certainly shouldn't be bleaching your hair to begin with.
Once this is complete if you still aren't totally pleased with the color apply another semi-permanent ash blonde. Make sure you select ash blonde, because the ash tones will counteract the brassy tones left in your hair after bleaching.