Two kinds of classification are appropriate. The forms may be distinguished grammatically, first, in terms of the adverbial versus the prepositional nature of the particles.
Secondly, they may be distinguished in terms of idiom, some of the combinations being idiomatic, others not. The two types of classification must be kept distinct. Palmer, The authors in the same work distinguish between:. They describe the system behind this in English as follows:. The very essence of this construction lends itself to rapidity of expression.
It is normal to strive to maintain in the translation a trace of such concision, rhythm and lightness of touch, which is almost unavoidably accompanied by some semantic loss.
Secondly, the work of the translator can be complicated by a verb of action being used with an inanimate subject, that is, when a categorical disparity between a subject and verb is used to produce the stylistic effect of a metaphor or personification.
Strategies of translation vary from flattening the stylistic effect by re-establishing the categorical balance between the subject and verb e. The gamut of possibilities between the two extremes leaves room for other, more or less ingenious, translations.
It is the very large swathe of translating strategies studied here that will highlight the semantic, syntactical, rhythmic, and metaphorical aspects of the dilemma facing the translator. The two works differ vastly in their setting and intentions: Dubliners describes apparently minor events in the lives of ordinary people in Dublin.
The unsaid, maybe even the unsayable, are pervasive in descriptions of the attitudes of characters, fears of sinning or of sinful thoughts paralyse some characters, and the stories are shot through with mysteries about the uncomely behaviour of respectable persons like priests.
Rever de visage ride traduction
Tender Is the Night describes the leisures, pleasures, and empty lives of young, rich and beautiful Americans in the roaring twenties who commute between the palatial hotels of Switzerland, Italy, and the French Riviera, but who also fall prey to more murky adventures involving clashes with the police, excessive drinking, shootings and fights. Here the manner in the verb is followed, as is common in English, by a prepositional syntagm indicating direction and result.
This method involves reversing the order of information given between French and English: the main English verb of manner is transposed syntactically into an adverbial syntagm of some sort, and the adverbial particle or preposition in English becomes the French verb indicating direction or result. In some cases the English verb is simply translated by an adverb, as in these four examples:.
The old woman […] proceeded to toil up the narrow staircase Dub He struggled on with his copy […] Dub Il poursuivit péniblement sa copie […] JA, When we were tired of this sight we wandered slowly into Ringsend.
Dub Une fois rassasiés du spectacle, nous gagnâmes lentement Ringsend. PN, On a purely semantic level, in the last example, the English verb jerk is undertranslated by the adverbs in so far as the nervosity and impatience in jerkiness is lost.
Sometimes, in French, the translations of the English adverb or preposition are fluffed out into a more complex adverbial syntagm, as in the following examples:. Boys sprinted past on bicycles, […] TITNIl y avait des garçons sur des bicyclettes, qui passaient en trombe […] JT, De jeunes garçons passaient en trombe à bicyclette […] MC, While my aunt was ladling out my stirabout […] Dub Pendant que ma tante me versai t mon porridge à pleines louches […] JA, All the branches of the tall trees […] were gay with little light green leaves and the sunlight slanted through them on to the water.
JA, It was past four and under a blue-gray sky the first fishing boats were creaking out into a glaucous sea. TITN, JT, This quality is re-inforced, as here, when the process is triggered by the subject immediately preceding the verb Guillemin-Flescher, Here, then, the personified subjects animate, in the translation, the English particle transposed into the main verb form, and the verb of manner becomes a participial syntagm.
The translation may be more wordy, but nevertheless it preserves several important figurative and semantic elements of the original. TITN Dresser des hommes, je connais ça. English, with the phrasal verb system, first delivers the manner with brutalisesunlike French, more apt to give information about the end result first.
This translation shows that this phrasal verb formulation in English contains such concision that translations may have to multiply transpositions of all sorts to arrive at a faithful version, often running the risk of being long-winded.
This is not inevitable, since as we shall see in Part Two, some translations of the same sentences lack the rigour observed in the above examples. In several examples, the elements of meaning in the double unit are translated in the same order as in English:.
Traduction de "propriété des actifs" en Anglais
Far ahead he saw her yellow dress twisting through the crowd TITN Il reconnut au loin sa robe jaune, qui se faufilait à travers la foule JT, Puis il aperçut, loin devant eux, sa robe jaune se faufilant à travers la foule MC, Here, the order can sometimes be maintained:. The fine night streamed away on either side of the yacht TITN Here, the night passes by on either side of the yacht, and also passes in time, maybe even, on some more poetic level, visually.
The verb stream indicates the gentle, peaceful passage of the night. Both translations add the verb of comparison semblerunwilling to directly personify the night as in English. Otherwise, apart from the inappropriate disparaîtrethe elements of meaning of the phrasal verb are present in glisserand fuireven if the French tends to stack together the two verbs used, in one case chronologically linked by puisin the other, placed in juxtaposition.
The system of two verbs to translate the English phrasal verb allows the translation to remain more airy than with the introduction, perhaps, of a cumbersome and explanatory prepositional syntagm. The choice of sembler also provides the text with two infinitives rather than heavier conjugated forms, and thus contributes, by compensation, to the flow of the original.
Here again, as with the sun and boats examples 7 and 8there is an inanimate subject coupled with a dynamic verb that actualises the process and the translators have maintained this.
Another example shows away with the meaning of a passage towards disappearance:.
Seeing that his remark had meant comparatively little to him, she laughed away its effect. Laugh is the means and away is the result. In the translation, French adds the start of the laugh se mit àwhereas laughed away is inchoative by itself from the context. All the elements of meaning are there.
Pour tout effacer in French can be read as either an aim or a result here, whereas it is clearly only the result in English. The order of events in the sentence laughthen away can be maintained in French, provided the added se mit à fluffs out the expression, and permits the use of the light infinitive form. The upper part of the regiment dinfanterie 92e was now completely dark. Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity Dub Le haut de la salle était maintenant plongé dans une obscurité complète.
What we might remember is the variety of possibilities available. A last point here about the choice between the different possibilities: it would appear from the type of verbs of process studied in this first part that nothing either semantic or stylistic pre-determines a particular type of translating method.
French has a greater tendency, for example, to rely on the implicit and avoid being overburdened by explicit references to positioning where the overall context is capable of filling in the gaps. It is this preference, in French, for a more implicit, and more abstract, mode of expression that explains why the reader is left to fill in logical gaps in a given context.
In the words of J. Vinay and J. He struggled on with his copy Dub In one French translation:. La partie supérieure du hall était maintenant complètement obscure. Regardant vers le noir, je me sentis le jouet grotesque de la vanité PN, Legum Magister, titulaire d'un master en droit.
Licence Number? Marché OTC: marché de l'automédication donc aussi sans ordonnance, en vente libre OTC derivative instruments Instruments dérivés hors bourse, de gré à gré. On envisage de créer des chambres de compensation pour les produits vendus de gré à gré.
PIT reports rapports horodatés? PL Personal Lines, assurances de personnes? Path Overhead,? Asset-Backed Commercial paper, marché du papier commercial adossé à des actifs. Asset-Backed Commercial Papers, certificats de dépôt?
Alternative Dispute Resolution, séances de conciliation par des professionnels non-avocats. Application Programming Interface, interface de programmation; aussi automates programmables?
Agile Release Train, période de trois mois dans la planification d'un cycle de développement agile d'une chaîne de création de valeur. Computer Based Training, apprentissage via ordinateur se distingue de EAO, enseignement assisté par ordinateur.
Assurance voiture Collision Damage Waiver - tous risques - franchise en cas de collision? Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, séances de conciliation par des professionnels non-avocats. Criminal Investigation Department - service d'enquêtes sur la provenance de fonds - service de l'IRS; Département pénal.
Confederation or Commonwealth? Commercial Paper, billet de trésorerie émis par institution financièrecertificat de dépôt émis par entreprise ou par instance publique ; titre négociable. Computed Tomography, scanner, tomographie par ordinateur, imagerie diagnostique? Currency Transaction Report Déclaration de transaction monétaire, déclaration d'opération en liquide.
Department of Motor Vehicles - endroit où l'on peut chercher le détenteur d'un véhicule selon le No de plaque. CE, a engendré d'importants arriérés de travail et a considérablement ralenti les opérations. Charger plus d'exemples. Voir également acteurs actifs - actors active. Mot par mot traduction des - of ones one. Phrases dans l'ordre alphabétique propriété de charme. Français - Anglais Index des mots:.